Study of Integrated Coastal Zone Management and Its Environmental Effects: A Case of Iran

Study of Integrated Coastal Zone Management and Its Environmental Effects: A Case of Iran

Habibeh Karimi (Islamic Azad University – Tonekabon, Iran) and Farid Gholamrezafahimi (Islamic Azad University – Tonekabon, Iran)
Copyright: © 2017 |Pages: 25
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-1683-5.ch004
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Abstract

Coasts were one of the main places of residence for human beings through the history. From the emergence of civilization to now, the human beings used coastal zone as a best place for residence. However, in early 21 century, almost two-third of people in the world (i.e. 3/7 billion people) lived in the 60 km of sea sideline. Therefore, some problems threaten human communities, includes soil erosion, changes in coastline, coastal habitat destruction, drying or polluting underground waters, and creating dangerous situation for hygiene and health in order to lack of insufficient repulsing waste and sewage. Thus, according to these problems, the integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) was considered as a main way for solving the environmental problems. This chapter follows the goal that is related to the ICZM, particularly in Iran, after investigating the problems in the coastal region.
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Introduction

The coastal zone is one of the important areas in the world and it is considered as an element for major economic and social activities in the world (Alder & Kay, 2005). On the other hand, according to the population growth and development activities in those situations, there were many involvements in this region in the past and this region was exposed to the different pollutions and destructions. The agreement for integrated management in coastal zones, in order to the “earth session” in 1992 by coastal countries, it shows a reaction about critical situation in this major region in the earth (UN, 1992). In other words, until 2002, the number of countries which obey the ICZM (Integrated Coastal Zone Management) were 145 countries and all of the coastal countries at the end of 2009 follows those principles (Moksness, Dahl, & Støttrup, 2009). Although, the process of growth pollution, the decrease in living diversities, and destruction of the ecosystem were considered as an important element for countries which accept the ICZM, but nowadays the economic exploitation is a major reason for creating the research plan (Cicin-Sain, 1987), see Table 1.

Table 1.
Elements of coastal countries' agreement to ICZM
NOThe reason for ICZMAll countries(percent)Undeveloping countries(percent)Semi-developing countries (percent)Developing countries (percent)
1The extra exploitation of sources1802725
2The great coastal pollutions20211325
3The coastal ecosystems' destruction18211325
4Economic benefits of sea and coast22361320
5Acquiring the new opportunities at sea and coast67130
6The destruction of coast's dangers101475
7Other elements60130

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