Techniques for the Isolation of Plant-Based Bioactive Compounds

Techniques for the Isolation of Plant-Based Bioactive Compounds

Rajneesh Thakur, Nikhil Mehta, Ajeet Singh, Kanchan Joshi, Ankita Gautam, Navneet Bithel
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-6684-7337-5.ch011
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Phytochemicals are natural active ingredients that are occurring in plants. In the pursuit for novel biomolecules, the recovery of bioactive composites from plants, as well as their quantitative and qualitative evaluation, is critical. In the discovery and characterization of bioactive compounds, plant extraction and separation remain a critical concern. Analysis of bioactive compounds found in plant extracts using various approaches involving the use of chromatographic methods such as HPLC, TLC, OPLC, GC, PC, CC, and detection through FTIR, NMR, and MS is a frequent practice in the isolation of these bioactive compounds. The pure compound's structure and biological activity/bioactivity, such as antioxidant, antibacterial, or cytotoxicity, are then determined, along with their simplicity, specificity, and speed.
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Plant Metabolites

Plant metabolites are of two types:

  • i)

    Primary metabolites: proteins (amino acids), carbohydrates, lipid, nucleic acid and chlorophyll (involve in organism development process).

  • ii)

    Secondary metabolites: alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes, tannins, phenolics and volatile oils (role in adaptabilities and survival processes).

Table 1.
Biological properties of bioactive compounds
Compound NamePharmacological Properties
TerpenoidAntimicrobial, antibacterial, anticancer, antiviral, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial (Shakya, 2016).
Phenolcarboxylic AcidsAnticarcinogenic, anti‐inflammation and anti‐allergic and antimutagenic, (Anulika et al., 2016)
AlkaloidsAntispasmodic, analgesic, diuretic activities, local anesthetic, antimalarial, antihypertensive, antiasthma, antimalarials, diuretic, bactericidal (Chikezie et al., 2015)
FlavonoidsAntioxidant activity, anti‐inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antiviral, cardiovascular protective, antibacterial (Anulika et al., 2016)
SaponinsAntitumor, antifungal, anti‐inflammatory, antiviral, immunostimulant, antihyperglycemic, antihepatotoxic, hepatoprotective, anticoagulant, neuroprotective and antioxidant (Kabera et al., 2014)
TanninsAntioxidant, diuretics, hemostatic, anti‐mutagenic, metal ion‐chelators, anti‐carcinogenic, antiseptic (Anulika et al., 2016)

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