The Development of Russia in the Early Years of Soviet Power

The Development of Russia in the Early Years of Soviet Power

Bogdan Ershov (Voronezh State Technical University, Russia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-9985-2.ch005

Abstract

This chapter discusses the reasons for the victory of the Russian revolution of 1917, as well as the first steps of the Soviet government to reform the country. It is shown that the revolution had a bourgeois-democratic nature. Different opinions of scientists on recognition and non-recognition of the Russian revolution of 1917 are revealed. Historical analysis has shown that Russia reached “a certain height” of capitalism in large-scale industry, in transport, and in the economy, where, as in the West, capitalist monopolies and large banks dominated. As for the village, it was still on the eve of the bourgeois-democratic revolution, and there could be no question of any preconditions for socialism.
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Historiography And Analysis Of The Russian Revolution Of 1917

Appeal to the works of foreign historians about the economic and social consequences of the industrial and agrarian development of Russia in the second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries, undoubtedly, will allow a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of foreign Russian studies in general in order to reveal its achievements and problems. It is also necessary for a more complete and comprehensive study of the historical experience of the capitalist development of Russia — a topic whose meaning and significance is beyond doubt. But a complete study of the entire foreign historiography of this issue is an extremely complex and diverse task. In view of this, the intercultural way of studying historical literature on this issue seems preferable.

A prominent place in the first stage of domestic research is occupied by the fundamental monograph by Rashina “The Population of Russia for 100 Years (1811–1913): Statistical Essays,” which contains a special section “The dynamics of the number and processes of formation of the urban population of Russia in the 19th and early 20th centuries.”, Which analyzes data mainly on capitals and cities . Valuable statistical data on the dynamics of the number and mechanisms of formation of the urban population, its growth factors, age and sex composition and literacy in the 19th-early 20th centuries. centuries, contain historical and demographic works B.V. Tikhonova. In them, on the basis of Lenin's methods, the number of the main social and professional groups of the population in a number of cities of the Russian Empire is determined, the connection of demographic processes and the socio-economic development of the country is shown (Shatsillo, 1961).

Factors that had an important and sometimes decisive influence on the fate of the city center, not without reason, should include its location in the country, the availability of convenient means of communication, the climatic features of a particular region, geography, the proximity of minerals, etc. In this connection, works on historical geography are of great importance for the study of the socio-economic development of Russian cities in the second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries. In their work, V. Z. Drobizhev, I. D. Kovalchenko, and A. V. Muravyov were among the first in the Soviet historiography who gave a generalizing characteristic of the historical and geographical conditions of the country's development.

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