The Impact of Risk Factors on the Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease

The Impact of Risk Factors on the Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease

Abiola Basirat Bakare, Mubeen Ghafoor, Manuela Mura, Waqar Ahmed
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-6684-6830-2.ch013
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The growing rate of cardiovascular disease all over the globe is so alarming that urgent measures need to be put in place. Approximately 18 million deaths are recorded every year globally due to cardiovascular disease. People living with high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol level, or living poor are at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Other factors include age, gender, family history, and ethnic group. Understanding the risks of cardiovascular disease can help individuals, organizations, and governments promote a healthy lifestyle. Cleveland heart disease dataset was collected from online and open source for the purpose of this study. The dataset includes 297 medical records of patients between the ages of 29-77. The dataset was processed and analyzed in Microsoft Excel using frequency counts and percentages. The risk factors are important risk factors of cardiovascular disease for the participant of the study. Discussion on the use of biomaterials in fabricating tissue-engineered nanofibers for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases is also presented.
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Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is a term used for diseases associated with or affecting the heart or blood vessels. It occurs due to blockages in the arteries from the build-up of cholesterol in the body (National Health Service, 2022). The four major types of cardiovascular disease are Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), Stroke, Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) and Aortic Disease. Coronary heart disease occurs when blood supply to the heart muscles is restricted or blocked due to the build-up of fatty substances in the major blood vessels that supply the heart with blood called coronary arteries. Stroke occurs because of inadequate supply of blood to the brain. Peripheral arterial disease occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the limbs especially the legs are blocked. Aortic disease occurs when there is problem such as weakness or bulginess with the largest blood vessel in the body called aorta (NHS Inform, 2023). Causes of cardiovascular disease include smoking, high stress, excess alcohol, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, obesity, and inactivity (British Heart Foundation, 2019).

Figure 1.

Formation of atherosclerosis and blood clot in the arteries

Source: Cardiovascular Consultants P.C. (2021)
Figure 2.

Formation of atherosclerosis leading to thrombosis.

Source: Fertilitypedia (2023)

Despite the fatality of these diseases, people still live unhealthy life by exposing themselves to the risks. This increases the mortality and morbidity rate every year. According to WHO (2022), approximately 18 million deaths are recorded every year all over the world due to cardiovascular disease. British Heart Foundation (BHF, 2022) showed that over half a billion people are living with cardiovascular disease globally, with a 90% increase every year. They mentioned that over 7 million people (with males being the higher population of 4 million) are suffering from cardiovascular disease in the UK. This number will continue to increase due to age and population growth.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Aortic Disease: Is a type of cardiovascular disease caused by the malfunctioning of the main artery in the body called aorta.

Peripheral Arterial Disease: This is a type of cardiovascular disease that occur when the vessels that carries blood from the heart to the limbs (especially the legs) is narrowed by build-up of fatty deposits.

Risk Factors: These are characteristics that increase the possibility of developing cardiovascular disease. These characteristics may be physical, behavioural, psychological or genetical.

Maximum Heart Rate Achieved: It is the highest number of heart beats per minutes an individual has at maximum stress or maximum exercise.

Fasting Blood Sugar: It is the testing of amount of sugar in the blood before eating or drinking in the morning. This is done after fasting overnight and before taking anything in the morning. It is measured in mg/dL or mmol/L.

Resting Blood Pressure: This is the measurement of the resting period of the heart between one heartbeat to the next. It is also known as diastolic blood pressure, and it is measured in mmHg.

Coronary Artery Disease: Is a type of cardiovascular disease caused by accumulation of fats in the artery that supplies blood to the heart (coronary artery). It occurs when the flow of blood to the heart is impeded.

Serum Cholesterol Level: This is also known as total cholesterol. It is the amount of total cholesterol in the body. Serum cholesterol contains the total amount of Low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides in the body. It is measured in mg/dL or mmol/L.

Stroke: This is a type of cardiovascular disease that occur when the blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood to brain gets ruptured or blocked. This usually happens as result of fatty deposits in the vessels.

Cardiovascular Disease: Is the nomenclature used for any disease of the heart and blood vessels.

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