Therapeutic Enzymes Used for the Treatment of Non-Deficiency Diseases

Therapeutic Enzymes Used for the Treatment of Non-Deficiency Diseases

Abderrezak Khelfi (National Center of Toxicology, Algeria)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-5237-6.ch003
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Therapeutic enzymes have a broad variety of specific uses and clinical applications, particularly as antineoplasic agents, wound debridement therapeutics, and anti-inflammatory drugs, etc. These enzymes can elicit immune response, contributing allergic reactions. Newer drugs with improved stability and less antigenicity have been developed. Covalent modification of enzymes is used to circumvent this immunogenicity. Advancements in drug delivery have revolutionized enzyme therapy. Microencapsulation and artificial liposomal entrapment are some of the techniques used to increment the stability and half-life of enzyme drugs. Several enzymes are now used as prodrug that metabolizes inactive substances into active metabolites through bioactivation process. This approach comprises a suit of techniques that allow activation of drugs locally and at the site of action. This chapter gives an outline of clinical uses of therapeutic enzymes used in non-deficiency diseases. Developments of these enzymes are reviewed with a particular focus on bioengineering applied to the native proteins.
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2.Enzymes Used For Cancer Therapy

Cancer therapy involves inhibition of cancer cell proliferation without damaging the normal cells. Amino acid deprivation is the main methodology used in cancer enzyme based therapy and it consists in the induction of starvation of amino acids in tumor cells, which are auxotrophic to particular amino acids. This method often reduces tumor proliferation. Indeed, some tumor cells may require unusual or specific nutrients derived from the bloodstream, or may require a nutrient in higher concentration than normal cells. In this area, microbial derived L-Asparaginase has been approved for the treatment of some forms of leukemia, and glutaminase is also under study for treatment of neoplastic diseases. Furthermore, enzyme therapy for cancer treatment can be made by the use of EPT.

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