Transnational Organized Crime: The Branching of Mafias Into the Global Era

Transnational Organized Crime: The Branching of Mafias Into the Global Era

Giovanna Palermo (Università degli Studi della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Italy)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1286-9.ch008

Abstract

Criminal organizations have opened up to profound global transformations, putting themselves on the financial markets and creating a network in Mafia style. The present contribution intends to offer a framework of transnational criminal organizations, starting from defining aspects, normative forecasts and peculiarities, and then describing the Italian mafias and those of Eastern Europe, China, and Nigeria. Through these analyses the author intends to demonstrate how although Italy is the only country to have introduced “the Mafia Criminal Association” ex Art. 416 bis of the Penal Code, other countries also know this phenomenon. China, Russia, sub-Saharan Africa have given rise to mafia-style criminal organizations, even though they have not legally defined them. Today the branching of these associations at transnational level brings out their mafia values and the need to intervene with the legal and investigative methodology that was first experimented in Italy.
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The Affirmation Of Transnational Organized Crime

The emergence of transnational crime is part of that profound process of transformation inaugurated at the end of the last century, which is globalization. In particular, its evolution must be analyzed in relation to the emergence not only and not so much of new criminal groups, as to the emergence of new offences, considered transnational because of their ability to overcome borders, so called cross-border criminal activities.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Kleptocracy: A mode of government where corruption exists and where power is used to seek personal annuity.

Anti-Mafia Investigation Directorate (DIA): An investigative body with tasks to combat organized crime of the Mafia type in Italy.

‘Ndrangheta: Organized criminal association of mafia type born in Calabria (Italy). It is the only mafia present on all continents.

Sacra Corona Unita (SCU): Organized criminal association of mafia type born in Puglia (Italy). Its name derives from the symbolic elements that characterize it: sacred , because at the moment of affiliation the new member is “baptized” or “consecrated”, crown , because the rosary is used in processions and unit , to remember the strength of a chain made of many rings.

Camorra: Organized criminal association of mafia type born in Naples (Italy).

Pentitismo: A phenomenon that has developed since the first half of the 1980s and that sees people involved in organized crime collaborating with the public prosecutor (collaborators of justice or repentants).

Transnational Crime: A type of offense prepared, planned, directed or committed in several States, even at different stages, or which produces effects in several States.

Picciotto: Boy belonging to a mafia criminal organization, he represents the lowest level in the organization hierarchy.

Mafia: Organized criminal association born in Sicily (Italy), also called Cosa Nostra. Today indicates all organized criminal associations that use the force of intimidation of the associative bond and of the condition of subjugation and of silence that results from committing crimes.

Intermafiosity: Collaborative network between endogenous and foreign criminal organizations.

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