TVET in Developing Nations and Human Development

TVET in Developing Nations and Human Development

Ugochukwu Chinonso Okolie (Ebonyi State University, Nigeria) and Asfa M. Yasin (PSS Central Institute of Vocational Education, India)
Copyright: © 2017 |Pages: 25
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-1811-2.ch001
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Abstract

This chapter discussed technical and vocational education training (TVET) and human development in developing nations. It presented TVET as a twin term which may be considered to mean same, supports basic education, life skills and enables achievement of high education standards, leadership, preparation for industry-defined work and advanced continuing education. Objectives of TVET were highlighted and challenges facing the smooth delivery of the programme in developing countries as well as solutions to the identified problems were discussed. It also provided readers with knowledge about how TVET can assist individuals become self reliant, creative, flexible, desire for achievement, ambition, trustworthy, reliable and agent of positive, capable of contributing to national growth and development.
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Introduction

Now that many developing nations suffer severe economic depression, the chief concerns of the populace have always been to get standard jobs that promise adequate incomes to cover the needs of their families. But how trouble-free can it be when thousands of workers are being laid off in many establishments? Now, if someone unpredictably become unemployed, the maximum challenge would be; how to take vigorous actions to become either self-employed or to get another paid employment in a bigger, better establishment. But, becoming self-employed would not be simple if the individual has no saleable skills. When she/he has skills, she/he is empowered and this brings the need for skills acquisition and youth empowerment. Skills acquisition and empowerment are the catchphrase of the technical and vocational education training, which is an educational programme that aims at imparting skills to its recipients (learners).

The developing nations refer to those countries with low level of material wellbeing. They are usually classified based on their per capital income, life expectancy, rate of literacy and human development index. The key attribute of a developing economy is lack of significant industrialization relative to the population in addition to poor standards of living. The low level of living hence are manifested qualitatively and quantitatively in form of low incomes, inadequate housing, poor-healthcare facilities with limited or no education, high infant mortality, low life and work expectancy and in many cases, a general sense of hopelessness. However, in this type of economy, acquisition of skills through technical and vocational education training, which will make the citizens self-reliant and productive, is imperative as it will reduce unemployment, hunger and poverty. Without available facilities in adequate and effective utilization of the adequate facilities by qualified technical teachers, the acquisition of needed skills, knowledge and experiences, which students can use in translating theoretical principles into practical design for problem solving in the society, remain an illusion. This is why this book is prepared to give better understanding of technical and vocational education training as a sustainable instrument for manpower development in a developing economy. The free encyclopaedia defines a developing economy as a nation with low level of material well-being. Internationally, there have not been an extensively accepted definition of the word and level of development may differ widely within the so called developing economy. The United Nations defines the developing economies (countries) as countries, which have not achieved significant degree of industrialization relative to their populations, which also have in most cases, a medium of low standard of living

Technical and Vocational Education Training (TVET) are twin terms, which may be considered to have the same meaning. It is a planned program of courses and learning experiences which starts with exploration of occupational options. It supports basic education and life skills, and enables achievement of high education standards, leadership, preparation for industry-defined work, and advanced continuing education. This form of education prepares learners for careers that are based in manual or practical activities. It is that form of education designed to develop occupational skills and can be traced to apprenticeship agreements of the colonial times. In the context of this chapter, technical and vocational education training will be used as a twin terms.

After reading this chapter, the reader will be able to identify how technical and vocational education training skills and knowledge assists individuals become:

  • Self-Employed: The ability to stand alone, be self-reliant and create jobs instead of relying on white-colar jobs which are not readily available.

  • Creative: This has to do with the ability to emerge with original ideas.

  • Flexibility: This particular characteristic entails the ability to become accustomed to needs of followers and the situation.

  • Desiring for achievement, ambition, high energy, tenacity, and initiative.

  • Trustworthy, reliable, and open.

  • Agent of positive change and contribute to national and economic development

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