Use of Eggshell as a Partial Replacement for Sand in Concrete Used in Biomedical Applications

Use of Eggshell as a Partial Replacement for Sand in Concrete Used in Biomedical Applications

Sebastin S. (National Engineering College, Thoothukudi, India) and Murali Ram Kumar S. M. (National Engineering College, Thoothukudi, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-3591-2.ch016
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Abstract

The recent researches show that cement mortar containing eggshell as a partial replacement of sand contained radiation absorption property. In these cement mortar samples, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% by mass of sand was replaced by crushed eggshells, and there was increase in radiation absorption. The result also showed that using eggshell as a partial replacement for sand leads to decrease in compressive strength of the cement mortar. Waste of any kind in the environment when its concentration is in excess can become a critical factor for humans, animals, and vegetation. The utilization of the waste is a priority today in order to achieve sustainable development. So, we have planned to increase that compressive strength by means of using seashell as a partial replacement for cement. The main objective of the project is to maintain radiation absorption by means of using eggshell along with seashell as a partial replacement for cement to increase the compressive strength.
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Introduction

Waste of any kind in the environment when its concentration is in excess can become a critical factor for humans, animals, and vegetation as stated by (Dr.Amarnath Yerramala, 2014). The utilization of the waste is a priority today in order to achieve sustainable development. In this developing world, many countries are going to face the severe environmental problems due to the rapid population growth. Nowadays, Indians are generating waste products at a rather alarming rate. It is much faster than the natural degradation process and they are using up resources at a speed exceeding the rate these materials are being replaced (Amu, O.O., A.B. Fajobi and B.O. Oke, 2005). As a way to disposal the waste, we need to recycle it to become useful product for the Indians. Despite the massive amount and complexity of waste produced, the standards of waste management in India are still cannot able to control waste generation rates and its composition, disposal of municipal wastes with toxic and hazardous waste, indiscriminate disposal or dumping of waste and inefficient utilization of disposal site results in severe health hazards to both humans and animals. To reduced this problems the waste product such as oil palm shell, fly ash and bottom ash are being used in construction industries as an additional material or replacement of the material in the concrete to decrease the cost while reducing the amount of waste.

The construction industries are searching for the alternative product that can increase their profit and in the same time can be an environmentally friendly material (ASTM Annual Book of Standards, 2004). The conversion of waste obtained from agricultural processes into biocompatible materials (biomaterials) used in medical surgery is a strategy that will add more value in waste utilization. This strategy has successfully turned the rather untransformed wastes into high value products. Eggshell is an agricultural waste largely considered as useless and is discarded mostly because it contributes to pollution. This waste has potential for producing hydroxyapatite, a major component found in bone and teeth. Hydroxyapatite is an excellent material used in bone repair and tissue regeneration. The use of eggshell to generate hydroxyapatite will reduce the pollution effect of the waste and the subsequent conversion of the waste into a highly valuable product. In this paper, we reviewed the utilization of this agricultural waste (eggshell) in producing hydroxyapatite (ASTM C 642–82, 1995). The process of transforming eggshell into hydroxyapatite and nanohydroxyapatite is an environmentally friendly process. Eggshell based hydroxyapatite and nanohydroxyapatite stand as good chance of reducing the cost of treatment in bone repair or replacement with little impact on the environment (ASTM C 642–82, 1995).

Chicken's egg is one of the waste materials that contribute lot to the environmental problem. Eggshells are available in large quantity due to their large consumptions majority of them are by products from other processes or natural materials (Bonavetti, V., Donza, H., Menédez, G., Cabrera, O and Irassar, E.F, 2003) . The major benefit of egg shell is its ability to replace certain amount of fine aggregate and still able to display fine aggregate property, thus reducing the weight of concrete, where seashell can be used as a replacement for cement to a certain amount because of its cementitious properties. The use of such by products in concrete construction not only prevents these products from being land-filled but also enhances the properties of concrete in the fresh and hardened states. Crushed Eggshell obtained by crushing the shells using the crusher has been established to be good partial replacement for fine.

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