Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Solve Some Civil Problems

Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Solve Some Civil Problems

Aleksander Sładkowski (Silesian University of Technology, Poland) and Wojciech Kamiński (Silesian University of Technology, Poland)
Copyright: © 2019 |Pages: 76
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-7588-7.ch003

Abstract

The widespread use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is currently a recognized trend. UAVs find their application in various sectors of the economy. In the chapter, based on extensive literature analysis, the possibilities of using UAVs for non-military applications are considered. The design features of various UAVs, their control features, energy requirements, and safety-related problems are considered. Particular attention is paid to public opinion related to the use of UAVs. The possibilities of using UAVs in power engineering, agriculture, for controlling traffic, for goods transporting, for controlling the means of railway transport, for first aid to people under various extreme conditions, as well as for some other applications are being explored. The UAV parameters are analyzed, which must be provided for their use in each specific case, while ensuring the minimization of the necessary financial resources.
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Background Of Uavs

The initial history of the development of UAVs was related to their use for military purposes. The page (History, 2018) notes that the first practical use of UAVs was in 1849 during the suppression of the Venetian insurrection by the Austrian army. In this case, unmanned balloons stuffed with shrapnel were used.

The use of winged aircraft as a drones is associated with the name of the American inventor Charles F. Kettering (Charles, 2018). Kettering designed the “aerial torpedo”, nicknamed the Kettering Bug. The sources cited above indicate different years of the creation of this invention (1910, 1914 and 1918). It was a radio-controlled bomb, created on the basis of a fairly primitive winged aircraft. Despite the fact that it was not possible to test this device in military conditions, the “Bug” is considered the first aerial missile. A total of 45 Bugs were produced, one of which is currently in the National Museum of the United States Air Force in Dayton, Ohio.

As the first unmanned reusable aircraft, De Havilland DH82B Queen Bee (De Havilland, 2018) can be considered. This aircraft, created for the Royal Air Force and the British Navy was used as a flying target. There were specimens with the possibility of landing on a ground surface or on a water surface. A total of about 1,000 aircraft were manufactured.

In the article (Benchoff, 2016) it is noted that the history of the emergence of the word “Drone”, which is now commonly used for the name of UAVs, is most likely connected with this aircraft. In English, the words “Drone” and “Queen Bee” are used to describe the representatives of the bee family. Accordingly, we can assume that the word “Drone” has been in use since 1935.

Unguided aircraft were created and widely used during the Second World War and in the prewar years. The history of their creation and use is described in detail in the book (Everett, 2015).

Currently, drones have found numerous areas of use for non-military purposes. This chapter will be devoted to the examination of existing possibilities for using drones in various areas of human activity.

Key Terms in this Chapter

UAV: Unmanned aerial vehicles – generic name, can be of different types (multicopter, bicopter, quadcopter, etc.).

RPAS: Remotely-piloted aerial system.

WPT: Wireless power transfer.

EASA: European Aviation Safety Agency.

WOPR: Water Volunteer Ambulance Service (Polish).

VLOS: Visual line of sight – permission to fly with drones in sight.

NDVI: Normalized difference vegetation index.

IMU: Inertial measurement unit.

BVLOS: Beyond visual line of sight – permission to pilot the drone out of sight.

ICAO: International Civil Aviation Organization.

Drone: The most common name of UAVs, which began to be used in 1935.

GPS: Global positioning system.

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