Utility, Duty, Morality, and Justice

Utility, Duty, Morality, and Justice

Copyright: © 2015 |Pages: 8
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-7254-3.ch002
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Abstract

Utility is the theory of the greatest happiness to as many people as possible. The end justifies the means where consequences matter and what makes the action moral is the result. Duty deontology implies that we are doing a good job as long as we are following the rules even if it is against our will. It is our duty, our obligation, even sometimes leading to pain. All actions and decisions should be of a good will regardless of the results. On the other hand, moral virtue is acquired by habit and does not come by nature. Virtue represents the mean between extremes. Therefore, moral virtue has to do with feelings followed by actions, where the mean is not always the middle of two opposite extremes. This chapter explores utility, duty, morality, and justice as philosophical foundations of moral imagination in ethical decision making.
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Philosophy Of Utility: Consequences Of Behavior

John Stuart Mill follows the consequentialist theory (Parker, 1863). Consequences of actions make them either right or wrong. John Stewart Mill begins to question the goodness of something good in itself. We need to go deep into the basics and see how they apply to life situations, thus making it easier to accept or reject it. Utility is not only physiological. It can be as simple as having fun. He then defines three meanings of pleasure that are beauty, ornament, and amusement. He distinguishes beauty from ornament by the idea that beauty is in the eyes of holder; ornament is in the eyes of the creator.

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