Verification of Non-Functional Requirements by Abstract Interpretation

Verification of Non-Functional Requirements by Abstract Interpretation

Agostino Cortesi (Università Ca’ Foscari, Italy) and Francesco Logozzo (Microsoft Research, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-61350-432-1.ch002
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Abstract

This chapter investigates a formal approach to the verification of non-functional software requirements that are crucial in Service-oriented Systems, like portability, time and space efficiency, and dependability/robustness. The key-idea is the notion of observable, i.e., an abstraction of the concrete semantics when focusing on a behavioral property of interest. By applying an abstract interpretation-based static analysis of the source program, and by a suitable choice of abstract domains, it is possible to design formal and effective tools for non-functional requirements validation.
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Introduction

Effective and efficient management of customer and user requirements is one of the most crucial, but unfortunately also least understood issues (Karlsson, 1997), in particular for Service Oriented Systems. In Service Oriented Architectures the non-functional aspects of services and connections should be defined separately from their functional aspects because different applications use the services and connections in different non-functional contexts. The separation between functional and non-functional aspects improves the reusability of services and connections. It also enables the two different aspects to evolve independently, and improves the ease of understanding application architectures. This contributes to increase the maintainability of applications (Wada, Suzuki, & Oba, 2006 and O’Brien, Merson, & Bass, 2007).

Problems in the non-functional requirements are typically not recognized until late in the development process, where negative impacts are substantial and cost for correction has grown large. Even worse, problems in the requirements may go undetected through the development process, resulting in software systems not meeting customers and users expectations, especially when the coordination with other components is an issue. Therefore, methods and frameworks helping software developers to better manage software requirements are of great interest for component based software.

Abstract interpretation (Cousot & Cousot, 1977) is a theory of semantics approximation for computing conservative over-approximations of dynamic properties of programs. It has been successfully applied to infer run-time properties useful for debugging (e.g., type inference (Cousot, 1997 and Kozen, Palsberg, & Schwartzbach, 1994)), code optimization (e.g., compile-time garbage collection (Hughes, 1992)), program transformation (e.g., partial evaluation (Jones, 1997), parallelization (Traub, Culler & Schauser, 1992)), and program correctness proofs (e.g., safety (Halbwachs, 1998), termination (Brauburger, 1997), cryptographic protocol analysis (Monniaux, 2003), proof of absence of run-time errors (Blanchet, Cousot, Cousot, et al., 2003), semantic tattooing/watermarking (Cousot & Cousot, 2004)). As pointed out in (Le Métayer, 1996), there is still a large variety of tasks in the software engineering process that could greatly benefit from techniques akin to static program analysis, because of their firm theoretical foundations and mechanical nature.

In this chapter we investigate the impact of Abstract Interpretation theory in the formalization and automatic verification of Non-Functional Software Requirements, as they seem not adequately covered by most requirements engineering methods ((Kotonya, & Sommerville, 1998), pag. 194). Non functional requirements can be defined as restrictions or constraints on the behavior of a system service (Sommerville, 2000). Different classifications have been proposed in the literature (Boehm, 1976, Davis, 1992, and Deutsch & Willis, 1988)), though their specification may give rise to troubles both in their elicitation and management, and in the validation process.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Space Efficiency: Maximum quantity of memory allocated during program execution

Abstract Interpretation: A theory of semantics approximation for computing conservative over-approximations of dynamic properties of programs.

Abstract System: An abstraction of an architecture and of programs running on it.

Software Robustness: A software is robust, if any exception raised during its execution, in any architecture and with any initial state, is caught by some exception handler.

Portability: Set of properties of the execution of a program that are preserved when it is ported on different architectures

Software Usability: Set of properties of the program’s user interface that are preserved during program execution.

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