Wearable Antenna Materials

Wearable Antenna Materials

Vimlesh Singh (MRIIRS, India) and Priyanka Bansal (MRIIRS, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-9683-7.ch012


The aim of this chapter is to identify various materials being used currently for antenna design classified as wearable materials. In the current scenario, no study was found where collectively all the available materials and their properties could be discussed including their pros and cons features. This chapter identifies various available materials on the basis of their characteristics, availability, and the methodology of fabrication being involved along with their corresponding properties. Post detailed study and analysis done in this research enabled us to broadly classify the materials as conductive and substrate materials. This brings to the understanding that earlier no such broader classification was made available, and hence, a comprehensive study would provide us better information availability on various wearable antenna materials.
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Wearable System

Wearable system can be designed as per requirement of application. For wearable system process flow is shown in figure.1. The data generated by a wearable device can be processed on line as well as offline. The most benefitted generation from these wearable is the young generation, which can justify with their dual responsibilities of child and parents. To interpret the raw data generated by a critical wearable device, we need a sequence of actions that keep on adding value to the raw data.

  • Sense

  • Analyze

  • Store

  • Transmit

  • Utilize

Figure 1.

Flow chart: Data flow between transmitting end to receiving end


Let us consider an example of a heart patient. To check the criticality of his own condition he will visit a physician, where a nurse documents the vital data collected using instruments (blood pressure monitoring, ECG, EKG). Thus the raw data from the body is converted in to information in terms of heart rate and blood pressure. Now this information is forwarded to the physician who further add value to the information in terms of knowledge gained by him over the time and experience. Thus this information is converted in to knowledge i.e. the person will get to know what is his medical condition and what is the medicine prescription for him. After taking proper medicine prescribed by the physician, patient can get the results (health improvement).


Wearable Material Classification

Wearable technology is smart clothing that embeds electronic component in fabric resulting in a “conductive yarn”. This is integrated in the textile by knitting, weaving, embroidering, printing, sewing, braiding, nonwoven textile and chemical treatment forming the basis of what is termed as e-textile. The yarn of the textile hence senses and responds as per the surrounding conditions. These conditions of the environment are predominantly governed by factors such as pressure, temperature, thermal behavior etc. Based on the nature of the responses the E textiles can be divided into 3 categories, namely

  • Passive Textile

  • Active Textile

  • Proactive Textile

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