Wind Energy Perspectives in Myanmar

Wind Energy Perspectives in Myanmar

Evgenii Ignatev (Moscow Power Engineering Institute (National Research University), Russia), Galina Deryugina (Moscow Power Engineering Institute (National Research University), Russia), Htet Myat Htoon (Moscow Power Engineering Institute (National Research University), Russia) and Mikhail Tyagunov (Moscow Power Engineering Institute (National Research University), Russia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-3645-2.ch008
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Abstract

One of Myanmar's problems is energy shortage. Partially, energy shortage can possibly be decreased by the construction of sizeable grid-connected offshore wind farms. Eight prospective construction sites were selected and wind turbine models chosen. This chapter describes the method for determining the optimal composition of the wind farms complex, consisting of several offshore wind farms located at a considerable distance from each other in areas with significant wind regime asynchrony. To illustrate this method, the optimal composition with an installed capacity of 47.6 MW and located off Myanmar's west coast is defined.
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Introduction

Nowadays, one of the actual problems of Myanmar is an energy shortage (approximately 10% of all energy consumption). Dramatic energy consumption growth due to electrification and economic growth predicted for the next 15 years. Energy shortage can be reduced by intensifying the renewable energy development which main directions are construction of large grid-connected wind farms.

Earlier assessments of the wind energy potential of Myanmar territory showed that its most part (approximately 92%) belongs to areas with weak energy potential (Deryugina, Tyagunov & Zai Ir Lin, 2017; Zai Ir Mint, 2013), where the long-term average wind speed does not exceed 2 m/s at 10 m height. Thus, in such areas, the construction of large grid-connected wind farms is not feasible and perspective. The most perspective for onshore wind energy development are coastal areas in the southern and western part of Myanmar. To confirm the previously obtained conclusions, the authors assessed the Myanmar territory’s wind energy potential from a long-term series of observations at onshore weather stations using the «Reliable prognosis» website’s data. The chapter presents the results of this assessment.

Analysis of Myanmar’s power system structure showed that it is most feasible to connect offshore wind farms to existing substations on the west coast of Myanmar. The wind energy potential of Myanmar’s west coast water area assessed for the first time. The main difficulties in this assessment were the choice of an information source for these calculations since there is no actual observation data in Myanmar’s water area.

The objective of the chapter is the research of the offshore wind farms usage efficiency operating in the united energy system of Myanmar using multiobjective optimization (Vasant, Zelinka, & Weber, 2019, 2020; Thomas, Karagoz, Ahamed, & Vasant, 2019).

Motivation

One of the main problems arising in the design of large grid-connected wind farms with an installed capacity of more than 30 MW is the mismatch between energy generation and consumption regimes. Because of this feature, it needs a limitation of wind farms share operating within the energy system, taking into account its value of maneuverable power reserve. Typically, such a limitation level is approximately 20% of the total installed capacity of power stations operating within the energy system.

However, there are examples of regions in which the share of wind farms in the power balance significantly exceeds this value. It is possible due to the usage of the effect of wind inflow asynchrony in different parts of a specific area on which wind farms placed and interconnected by energy, information, and infrastructure links. In this chapter considered the efficiency of such wind energy complex in Myanmar’s west coast water area.

To consider this, the following problems set and solved:

  • − Assessment of Myanmar territory’s wind energy resources;

  • − Assessment of wind energy resources of Myanmar’s coastal water area;

  • − Selection of perspective sites for offshore wind farms placement according to the specific criteria;

  • − Wind turbine model selection for the Conditions of Myanmar’s west coast water area;

  • − Determination of the optimal composition of wind farms complex using integral criterion method of multiobjective optimization (Vasant, Zelinka, & Weber, 2019, 2020; Thomas, Karagoz, Ahamed, & Vasant, 2019), taking into account both the efficiency of wind inflow asynchrony usage and energy efficiency.

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Background

Wind power is one of the energy sectors that grow steadily for the last years. At the beginning of 2019 world total wind farms installed capacity is 591 GW, growing by 9% during the previous year. Total newly added capacity in 2018 is 51.3 GW decreasing by 4% comparing the previous year (Global Wind Energy Council [GWEC], 2019). Although over the last four years (2015-2018), there has been a general decrease in wind farms installed capacity growth rate (from 14,7% in 2015 to 8,6% in 2018), certain wind energy industry sectors, primarily offshore wind energy, demonstrate steady growth (see Figure 1).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Wind Turbine: A device converting the kinetic energy of the air movement into other types of energy (mechanical or electrical).

Theoretical Wind Energy Potential: The average long-term total wind energy of the air movement over a specific territory for one year, which is available for use.

Wind Probability: A parameter showing the share of the time during a specific period when the wind speed is equal to or higher than a specific value.

Wind Gradient: The vertical gradient of the mean horizontal wind speed in the lower atmosphere showing the increase of wind speed with a unit increase in height above ground level.

Wind Farm: Several electrically integrated wind turbines with a common control system located compactly on a specific territory.

Wind: Air movement relative to the earth's surface resulting from uneven distribution of atmospheric pressure and directed from the high-pressure area to the low-pressure area.

Wind Repeatability: A parameter showing the share of the time during a specific period the wind blows at a specific speed and direction.

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