A Visual Saliency Detection Approach by Fusing Low-Level Priors With High-Level Priors

A Visual Saliency Detection Approach by Fusing Low-Level Priors With High-Level Priors

Monika Singh (GLA University, Mathura, India), Anand Singh Singh Jalal (GLA University, Mathura, India), Ruchira Manke (GLA University, Mathura, India) and Aamir Khan (GLA University, Mathura, India)
Copyright: © 2019 |Pages: 15
DOI: 10.4018/IJCVIP.2019070102

Abstract

Saliency detection has always been a challenging and interesting research area for researchers. The existing methodologies either focus on foreground regions or background regions of an image by computing low-level features. However, considering only low-level features did not produce worthy results. In this paper, low-level features, which are extracted using super pixels, are embodied with high-level priors. The background features are assumed as the low-level prior due to the similarity in the background areas and boundary of an image which are interconnected and have minimum distance in between them. High-level priors such as location, color, and semantic prior are incorporated with low-level prior to spotlight the salient area in the image. The experimental results illustrate that the proposed approach outperform the sate-of-the-art methods.
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Introduction

Visual Saliency has always been a trending and challenging research area for researchers. It is the process of identifying relevant and informative part from the entire scene or image as shown in Figure 1. The foundation of visual saliency is the keenness of knowing the prominent region in a particular area whether it is static or dynamic. It is highly investigated in computer vision for its enormous applications such as object detection and recognition (Alexe, Deselaers, & Ferrari, 2012), (Walther & Koch, 2006), content-based image retrieval (Smeulders, Worring, Santini, Gupta, & Jain, 2000), image cropping (Stentiford, 2007), image thumb nailing (Sun & Ling, 2013), retargeting (Rubinstein, Shamir, & Avidan, 2008) etc. A fundamental task in the visual saliency is to produce saliency map which can predict the prominent region or object in the scenes.

Figure 1.

Original image and its visual saliency

IJCVIP.2019070102.f01

In recent years, a pile of techniques and studies came regarding visual saliency (Ma & Zhang, 2003). Basically, the visual saliency works on attention models that concentrate on localizing the interest in the images that trap human fixations before complicated object recognition takes place. Thus, it is important to understand the human visual system which emphasis on the problem of searching salient objects with the goal to find regular foreground objects which usually can be used as interesting part for many applications.

The first model which came into existence was the task of predicting the eye-fixations on images (Liu et al., 2011), which focuses on finding where human looks in the dormant or lively scenes. The recent trend focuses more on salient object detection or salient region detection (Ma & Zhang, 2003), (Liu et al., 2011). The existing approaches focused either on absolutely low-level features or on high-level information. The results obtained using either of the features are not up to the mark as some part of background is also detected as salient region. Some of the methods which rely on the background priors also produced inappropriate results due to the object connected to the boundary of an image.

In this paper, the bottom-up and top-down models are blended to get the fine saliency map. Bottom-up models basically uses low level features to compute a proficient saliency map. On the other side, top-down models are those in which the possibility of an object being salient in an image is known. It is a task-driven approach which imposes high-level information such as semantics, color, and location to saliency map computation.

The rest of the paper is structured as follows: Section 2 contains the related work. Section 3 contains the proposed methodology. Section 4 contains the validation of the proposed method through experiments and results.

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Earlier research in visual saliency mainly focused on the bottom-up models to find prominent region (Itti, Koch, & Niebur, 1998), (Cheng, Mitra, Huang, Torr, & Hu, 2015), (Hou & Zhang, 2007), (Zhai & Shah, 2006). Bottom-up saliency models used low-level features with biologically inspired models which computes saliency on the basis of human eye fixation (Liu et al., 2011), (Klein & Frintrop, 2011), (Itti, Koch, & Niebur, 1998), (Hou & Zhang, 2007), (Valenti, Sebe, & Gevers, 2009), (Achanta, Hemami, Estrada, & Susstrunk, 2009). These approaches have limitation as only low-level features are used and there is no involvement of high-level information for the computation of saliency maps. The absence of high-level information leads to inaccurate saliency maps. So, for getting the consistent saliency map, the background features (Zhu, Liang, Wei, & Sun, 2014) as the low-level features are blended with high-level information.

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