Cost Efficient Deployment and Reliable Routing Modeling Based Multi-Objective Optimization for Dynamic Wireless Body Sensor Networks Topology

Cost Efficient Deployment and Reliable Routing Modeling Based Multi-Objective Optimization for Dynamic Wireless Body Sensor Networks Topology

Hassine Moungla (University of Paris Descartes, Paris, France), Nora Touati (Ecole Spéciale de Mécanique et d'Electricité-Sudria, Paris, France) and Ahmed Mehaoua (University of Paris Descartes, Paris, France)
Copyright: © 2013 |Pages: 18
DOI: 10.4018/ijehmc.2013100102
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Abstract

Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs), like any other sensor networks, suffer from limited energy and are highly distributed network, where its nodes organize by themselves and each of them has the flexibility of collecting and transmitting patient biomedical information to a sink. When a knowledge was sent to a sink from a path that doesn't have a definite basis, the routing is a crucial challenge in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks. Furthermore, reliability and routing delay are the considerable factors in these types of networks. More attention should be given to the energy routing issue and frequent topology's change in WBSNs. That increases the dynamics of network topology, and complicates the relay selection process in cooperative communications. Unreliable communication over the wireless channel complicates communication protocols and results in low data yield (Stathopoulos 2005). The deployment sensors step is a crucial and complex task due to several independent objectives and constraints. This paper presents a Min-Max multi-commodity flow model for WBSNs which allows preventing sensor node saturation and taking best action against reliability and the path loss, by imposing an equilibrium use of sensors during the routing process. This model is based on the authors' optimal sensors deployment method for WBSNs. Simulations results show that the algorithm balances the energy consumption of nodes effectively and maximize the network lifetime. It will meet the enhanced WBSNs requirements, including better delivery ratio, less reliable routing overhead.
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A lot of research is being done toward energy efficient routing in ad hoc networks and WSNs (Akkaya 2005; Grosby 2012; Ben Elhadj 2012), the proposed solutions are inadequate for WBSNs. Most protocols for WSNs only consider networks with homogeneous sensors and a many-to-one communication paradigm. In many cases the network is considered as a static one. In contrast, a WBSN has heterogeneous sensors devices with stringent realtime requirements due to the sensor-actuator communication. Specialized protocols for WBSNs are therefore needed. In the following, an overview of some existing routing strategies for WBSNs is given. They can be subdivided into two categories: routing based on the temperature of the body and cluster based protocols.

When considering wireless transmission around and on the body, one of some important issues are radiation absorption and heating effects on the human body. To reduce tissue heating the radio’s transmission power can be limited or traffic control algorithms can be used. In Ren (2006) rate control is used to reduce the bio-effects in a single-hop network. Another possibility is a protocol that balances the communication over the sensor nodes. An example is the Thermal Aware Routing Algorithm (TARA) that routes data away from high temperature areas (hot spots) (Tang 2005) . The node temperatures are converted into graph weights and minimum temperature routes are obtained. A better energy efficiency and a lower temperature rise is obtained, but the protocol has as main disadvantage that a node needs to know the temperature of all nodes in the network. The overhead of obtaining this data was not investigated.

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