A Novel Methodology for Configuring a Job Satisfaction Matrix

A Novel Methodology for Configuring a Job Satisfaction Matrix

Narges Yousefpoor (Department of Commercial Management, Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran, Iran) and Steven Meisel (La Salle University, Philadelphia, PA, USA)
Copyright: © 2012 |Pages: 10
DOI: 10.4018/jsds.2012100104

Abstract

The purpose of this research is to provide a job satisfaction matrix for further clarification of the interrelationships between individual emotional exhaustion, job properties, and organizational factors of job satisfaction. Job satisfaction was evaluated through the use of a novel, fuzzy rule-based algorithm. Interviews were conducted to generate data on the effective factors of job satisfaction. Following interview analysis and using categories suggested by the interview data, questionnaires were generated offering linguistic choice to support the qualitative aspect of job satisfaction. A stratified sampling technique was employed to find a sample of interviewees for the questionnaires. The job satisfaction matrix provides further clarification of the interrelationships between individual factors and is track-able in time intervals for identifying the dissatisfaction factors. The research demonstrated that by using the weighted scores of the data, strategies could be suggested to fill the gaps between ideal and reported satisfaction outcomes.
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1. Introduction

Job satisfaction is a multi-dimensional concept and a dependent variable of work life generally defined as a positive feeling about one’s job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics (Robbins & Judge, 2007). Job satisfaction is expressed behaviorally and as an emotional reaction to the work environment. It can be understood as an affective reaction to a job that results from the comparison of perceived outcomes with those that are desired (Fung-Kam, 1998; Larson et al., 1984; Tovey & Adams, 1999). It can also be expressed as factors affecting job satisfaction such as age, marital status, gender, organization or institution worked for, level of responsibility, employment type, work duration, and compensation (Asti & Pektekin, 1994; Aydin & Kutlu, 2001; Cimete et al., 2003; Fung-Kam, 1998; Kacel et al., 2005; Mrayyan, 2005; Siu, 2002). According to Adams and Bond (2000), the common point of job satisfaction definitions was the degree of positive approach related to work or to the elements of work. Some additional factors influencing job satisfaction could be professional status, administrative style, work requirements, policies, and individual characteristics.

The classic theories within the field of social psychology of Locke (1976) and Lawler (1973) proposed that job satisfaction does not only depend on the quality of the employment, but also on the worker’s expectations with respect to the job. The key to job satisfaction is in the fit between the objective conditions of the job and the worker’s expectations. The better the fit between expectations and job reality, the greater the satisfaction and vice versa. In addition, managerial factors affected employees’ attitudes, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and motivation to perform well, and these factors, in turn, influenced organizational outcomes (McNeese-Smith, 1996; Lee et al., 1999; Tzeng, 2002).

Organizational outcomes can be illustrated by research in hospital settings showing that a low retention rate of nurses was a function of job dimensions including cooperation, job complexity, help received from superiors, and sufficient time for nursing care delivery. Results also showed that a supportive institution might reduce personnel turnover in hospitals and that there was a correlation between turnover and patient satisfaction (Bjorvell & Brodin, 1992).

Job satisfaction has been examined as an antecedent to intention to leave (Mulki et al., 2006) and organizational commitment (Brashear et al., 2003) and predicted by emotional exhaustion (Jaramillo et al., 2006). While job satisfaction is examined as both an antecedent and outcome, the majority of academic research examines job satisfaction as a global, single-faceted construct. However, according to Churchill et al. (1974), the use of a global measure of job satisfaction in sales positions fails to provide an accurate and full assessment of satisfaction and provides little information that management requires to modify specific aspects of the work environment. In addition, studies that have examined job satisfaction with multi-dimensional scales, have reported differential effects on employees' job-related attitudes and behaviors (e.g., Johnston et al., 1987; Russ & McNeilly, 1995; Boles et al., 2003).

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