Sidekick: A Tool for Helping Students Manage Behavior in Self-initiated Learning Scenarios

Sidekick: A Tool for Helping Students Manage Behavior in Self-initiated Learning Scenarios

Paul Salvador Inventado (The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan and Center for Empathic Human-Computer Interactions, College of Computer Studies, De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines), Roberto Legaspi (Research Organization of Information and Systems, Transdisciplinary Research Integration Center, The Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Tokyo, Japan), Koichi Moriyama (The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan), Ken-ichi Fukui (The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan) and Masayuki Numao (The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan)
Copyright: © 2014 |Pages: 23
DOI: 10.4018/ijdet.2014100103
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Abstract

Students engage in many learning activities outside of class but, it is not easy for them to learn on their own because they also need to identify what activities to perform, decide how long to engage in them, evaluate their progress, shift to other activities if needed and avoid distractions aside from others. This research designed and implemented a learning support tool called Sidekick, which used a retrospective approach to help students analyze and evaluate their own behavior so they can adjust it accordingly. The results showed that students benefitted from understanding their behavior more. It also showed how students' learning behavior changed over time and the differences in the type and amount of change between learning sessions according to students' level of autonomy. Less autonomous students seemed to improve less compared to highly autonomous students however, the system was able to encourage them to recall and self-evaluate which they might not have done without the system.
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There are many models and definitions of self-regulated learning (SRL) such as those described in the works of Pintrich (2004), Winne and Hadwin (1998) and Zimmerman (2003). According to Pintrich (2004), most SRL models commonly share four assumptions. First, learners are assumed to be active participants in their learning process. Second, learners are assumed to be capable of monitoring, controlling and regulating aspects of their cognition, motivation, behavior and some aspects of their environment. Third, students’ performance can be compared to a standard, goal or criteria to assess whether the current process can be continued or if there is a need to change it. Lastly, it is assumed that learners’ self-regulation can affect their performance and the achievement of their learning goals.

Although we consider all these SRL assumptions, we focus on supplementing the third and fourth assumptions by helping students assess their performance so they can identify which behaviors they need to revise or which behaviors they should retain to improve their performance. We focused on this assumption because research has shown that students engaging in SRL often experience difficulty assessing their own performance, selecting learning tactics, monitoring learning tactics and evaluating the effectiveness of their learning tactics (Winne, 2002; Winne & Hadwin, 2013) indicating their need for support.

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