The Effects of Facebook Live-Stream Teaching on Improving Students' Dance Skills: Impacts on Performance, Learning Motivation, and Physical Activity Class Satisfaction

The Effects of Facebook Live-Stream Teaching on Improving Students' Dance Skills: Impacts on Performance, Learning Motivation, and Physical Activity Class Satisfaction

Chien-Chih Wu (Department of Physical Education, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan), *Hsiao-Wen Chao (Office of Physical Education, Tamkang University, Taipei, Taiwan) and Chia-Wen Tsai (Department of Information Management, Ming Chuan University, Taipei, Taiwan)
Copyright: © 2021 |Pages: 18
DOI: 10.4018/IJMBL.2021100103
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The purpose of this study is to enhance the effect of dance skill learning, learning motivation, and physical activity class satisfaction. Moreover, the outcome of these quasi-experiments illustrate the effects of Facebook Live-stream teaching, co-regulated learning (CRL), and experience-based learning (ExBL) on improving students' learning performance. The experimental design in this study was a 2 (CRL vs. non-CRL) × 2 (ExBL vs. non-ExBL) factorial pretest/post-test design. Four classes of a course titled ‘Physical Education: Dance' at university level were chosen for this study in one semester. According to the analysis of results, conclusions of this study are that students who receive ExBL have significantly higher physical activity class satisfaction than students who do not receive ExBL. In addition, in the case of ExBL teaching, the concurrent implementation of CRL can improve students' dance skill learning more than ExBL alone.
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1. Introduction

In this 5G generation, the use of the Internet as a medium to conduct teaching and learning activities has become the most urgently needed and popular teaching platform in face of this pandemic (Verawardina et al., 2020). Although there have been traces of remote teaching as early as 1920 via radio broadcast (Clark, 2020), nowadays, online courses have become one of the fastest growing teaching strategies in higher education. Less than a decade ago, one third of students had taken at least one online course during college, a proportion that had already increased three-fold compared with the previous ten years (Allen & Seaman, 2013). In light of this rapid evolution, education leaders in various countries have proactively promoted continuous investment in online education by both public and private institutions (Deming et al., 2015). Scholars have documented the influence of teaching methods, processes and teaching practices of various countries (Tight, 2019), and some have included dance education as one of the areas of international development exchange (Jin & Martin, 2019; Martin, 2013), leading dance education to become internationalized in the higher education arena (Martin, 2013).

The 2020 worldwide outbreak of new coronavirus (COVID-19) has rapidly transformed the entire education field from offline teaching to online teaching (Chen et al., 2021; Heyang & Martin, 2020). Online learning can solve the restrictions of time and space, whereas the traditional teaching methods cannot overcome the restrictions due to the current virus crisis (Panigrahi, Srivastava, & Sharma, 2018). Some universities have even eliminated face-to-face teaching (Dias et al., 2020), catalyzing the implementation of online education, which brings brand new challenges to both teachers and students (Heyang & Martin, 2020). For example: support of the school’s software and hardware, online teaching and learning experiences of teachers and students, technical background differences, education level of the students and financial support from their families, etc. are all important issues that need to be faced in this crisis (Chen et al., 2021).

A study by Cacault et al. (2019) found that online courses impact on students’ learning performance. They have more negative impact on students whose past grade point average is lower, which points out that online learning courses are less effective in enhancing students' academic achievement and progress than face-to-face courses. In addition, it discourages such students' learning effectiveness and decreases students' performance in subsequent courses (Bettinger et al., 2017; Figlio, Rush & Yin, 2013; Alpert, Couch & Harmon, 2016; Joyce et al., 2015), reducing student attendance in class, and may even reduce their willingness to attend school one year later (Cacault et al., 2019).

1.1. Teaching Practices in Taiwan

In response to the epidemic, the Ministry of Education in Taiwan has also set class suspension standards for schools at all levels and agreed to adopt the methods of on-campus or online supplementary classes for instruction. During the COVID-19 epidemic control period, the world advocated stopping classes yet continuing to learn (Mishra et al., 2020). Teachers at all levels of schools in Taiwan are also proactively preparing online courses in order to allow students to be able to learn at home, making online learning a significant focus. At this time, how physical education courses should be carried out online has become one of the key issues being discussed. Most physical education teachers may think that physical education has its own characteristics, and not all items are suitable for online teaching. Both teachers and students are subject to the limitations of space, as well as hardware and software. There are still many problems to be overcome to implement online teaching. As for the effectiveness of learning, both teachers and students have doubts as well. Investigating how to best achieve effective learning is one of the main purposes of this research.

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