The Inquiry, Communication, Construction and Expression (ICCE) Framework for Understanding Learning Experiences in Games

The Inquiry, Communication, Construction and Expression (ICCE) Framework for Understanding Learning Experiences in Games

Mamta Shah (Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA) and Aroutis Foster (Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/ijvple.2014040101
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Abstract

There is a paucity of research frameworks that focus on aiding game selection and use, analyzing the game as a holistic system, and studying learner experiences in games. There is a need for frameworks that provide a lens for understanding learning experiences afforded in digital games and facilitating knowledge construction and motivation to learn. Towards this goal, the purpose of this article is to introduce the inquiry, communication, construction, and expression (ICCE) framework. This qualitative study with interviews and observations examined the mathematics game Dimension M. It was analyzed using the ICCE framework. It reports the interpretive results of twenty 9th graders' motivation and achievement in a game-based learning course to learn mathematics using Dimension M. The ICCE framework may be a valuable tool for aiding teachers to assess the efficacy of games for learning and for students to benefit from the possible designed experiences within games.
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Frameworks For Evaluating Games

Few research frameworks exist that focus on aiding game selection and use, analyzing the game as a holistic system, and studying learner experiences in games. For instance, Rice (2007) created a tool for teachers to evaluate the inclination of video games towards encouraging higher order thinking in learners. This tool included components such as requiring users to assume a role, offering interaction through avatars and with non-player characters, presenting puzzles that require effort to derive solutions, and immersing players in systems that replicate real-life. Similarly, Killi (2005) designed the experiential gaming model to assist design and analysis of educational computer games for facilitating a flow experience. The model highlights the importance of providing the player with meaningful feedback, clear goals and challenges that adapt to his/her skill level, opportunities for creative solution generation, and reflection as factors contributing towards sustaining players’ engagement and as a means to maximize the impact of educational games.

The aforementioned frameworks are essential in that they target different audiences (teachers-Rice, 2007; learners-Killi, 2005) and focus on different teaching and learning dimensions (cognition-Rice, 2007; motivation-Killi, 2005) in the process of evaluating the merit of a game. We present the inquiry, communication, construction, and expression (ICCE) framework, which synthesizes the strengths of the frameworks discussed above to serve as a lens for analyzing learning opportunities in games and facilitating learners’ knowledge construction and motivational engagement.

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