The Sentiment Revealed in Social Networks during the Games of the Brazilian Team in the 2014 World Cup: A Conceptual Approach of Actor-Network Theory

The Sentiment Revealed in Social Networks during the Games of the Brazilian Team in the 2014 World Cup: A Conceptual Approach of Actor-Network Theory

Rita Paulino (Graduate Program in Journalism, Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, Brazil)
DOI: 10.4018/IJANTTI.2015040104
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Abstract

The participation of people in social networks is undeniably a contemporary phenomenon that presents as a characteristic not only the flow of explicit information in data form, natural and complex, but also some information (data) from the network's own movement. It is in this context that this article fits with the purpose of revealing information that is implied in participatory movements of sociotechnical networks. For this, one can rely on the conceptual theoretical contribution about Actor-Network Theory (ANT), by Bruno Latour (2012): “follow things through the networks they carry”. It is believed that by following the movements of social networks, one can view information that reflects feelings and actions that are implied in the connections about facts and events. In this article, the author will analyze and monitor social networks during the games of the 2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil. This approach brings us to an applied research and experimental.
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Introduction

This article aims to demystify the process of sentiment analysis in social networks, in order to present the theoretical background on the subject and the interface with digital journalism. To achieve this goal, we want to test and search for technological tools of analysis of feelings and information visualization tools for free access. As a case study we analyze the feeling and the emphasis of issues that arise during the matches of the national team during the World Cup 2014. This systemic approach is underpinned by the concept of Actor-Network Theory (ACT) Bruno Latour (2012). To register researched interconnections of information sometimes present but implicit in social networks, we have the tools to visualize data free access to show information and generate a memory of the striking facts or event.

Social networks are configured as a large sociotechnical system and in the view of Mario Bunge (2003) defined as a structured objects of complex shape which include components of which there is a relationship with at least one other component. More specifically, a system can be modeled as a composite quad including the system composition (components of this system) environment (items that are not part of the system, but suffer operating action or by some component), structure (- collection links between components and between these items and the environment) and mechanism (collection of processes that generate qualitative novelty) (BUNGE, 2003). Thus a semantic relationship is essential to the understanding of any system.

According to Leticia Luna Freire (2013) Latour's approach on networks refers to flows, circulations and alliances, in which the actors involved constantly interfere and are in interference. A network is a logical connection, defined by its internal assemblages and not by its external boundary. A sociotechnical system, in the view of Bunge (2003) and Latour (2013) refers to a structure of links or connections between peers and environments and can withstand external influences.

On a more structural view, the actors in social networks are mapped by their relations. There is a direct relationship between two actors when there is transmission in the general sense of the term, from one to the other, whether it is information, goods or services and control. When there are no unilateral transfers this relationship is not driven (LEMIEUX, 2004). But the fact that a network is not oriented, does not mean that the set of actors has no connection or meaning to the network they belong to. According to Latour, cited by Freire (2013) the author draws attention to the need to differentiate “actor” in the traditional sense conferred by sociology from, in Actor-Network Theory (ACT), the actor is all acting, leaves trace, may refer to individuals, institutions, animals, machines, etc. It refers not only to humans but also to non-humans, and therefore further suggested by the term Latour surfactant.

Network communication is done by data, can have semantic, pictorial, character and media that reveal feelings. Online social networking has become an important communication platform that brings together various aspects of information, including opinions and sentiments expressed by its users in simple conversations or messages (M. Araujo, 2014).

The ease in storing and retrieving information from routine monitoring of the actions of actors is a characteristic of informational societies (GANDY, 2002) and BRUNO, 2014).

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