Utilizing Free Augmented Reality App for Learning Geometry at Elementary School in Taiwan: Take Volumetric Measurement of Compound Body for Example

Utilizing Free Augmented Reality App for Learning Geometry at Elementary School in Taiwan: Take Volumetric Measurement of Compound Body for Example

Koun Tem Sun (National Tainan University, Tainan, Taiwan) and Meng Hsun Chen (National University of Tainan, Tainan, Taiwan)
Copyright: © 2019 |Pages: 18
DOI: 10.4018/IJDET.2019100103
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From random interviews of mathematics teachers, the researchers are conscious that students have difficulties in solving problems regarding compound body volume measurement. The researchers found the main factor involved in the difficulties was incomplete spatial concepts. Augmented reality (AR), which is a kind of educational technology, has been widely applied in the educational field in recent years. AR provides two- or three-dimensional objects and/or information and interaction with them. These characteristics can compensate for the insufficient characterization of compound-body volume in traditional education environments. The paper studies evaluation in utilizing free augmented reality to learn volumetric measurement of compound bodies to complete spatial concepts as well as improve the students' learning performance. The finding suggests that the positive impact on visualization and interaction as well as attitude lead students to be more engaged in learning activities with less cognitive effort, resulting in better learning performance.
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In traditional education environments, geometry is mainly taught using text, 2D images and mathematical formulas (Wu, Jia, Yueh, & Jian, 2009). Compound-body volume is a subunit of geometry, hence it also is taught in the same way. From our randomly performed with mathematical teachers who are full over 10 years teaching experience on mathematic, the researchers are conscious of students’ difficulties with solving these types of problems regarding compound-body volume measurement. Because of uncomplete spatial concepts due to the presentation of compound-body volume in textbook, students often measure incorrect side length of the compound-body volume when they are measuring the size of volume. -With this study, we found that students seem to conceive uncomplete spatial notions in traditional education environments due to inappropriate representations. Hence, appropriate representations adopted in learning spatial notions is essential.

Augmented Reality (AR) is the real and computer-generated information are combined in a physical world, interactively in real time, and display object intrinsically align to real world orientation (Höllerer & Feiner, 2004; Kaufmann, 2003; Zhou, Duh & Billinghurst, 2008). It is between real and virtual environment, but closer to real one. In the other words, it not only have the real visualization, but also the interactive, easily accessed virtual objects. This affordance can help students who usually encounter difficulties to visualize the phenomena that are not possible to view in real world or complex concept (Nincarean, Ali, Halim, & Rahman, 2013). Besides it, AR can support students by inspecting the 3D object or class materials from a variety of different perspectives or angles to enhance their understanding (Chen, Chi, Hung, & Kang, 2011). Furthermore, Cheng (2018) developed a survey to understand students’ conceptions of learning science by AR and the results indicate that the students generally exhibited positive conceptions, with stronger perceptions of learning science by AR as increasing motivation and interaction. At another aspect, AR helps students to improve their knowledge and skills, and does so more effectively than other technologies (El Sayed, Zayed, & Sharawy, 2011). Moreover, it is indispensable to refer to children’s volume-measured development stages which mentioned by Piaget, Inhelder, & Szeminska (1960) during representations designing.

In the past few years, there have been great exertions in the use of technology to support and enhance learning performance (Serio et al., 2013). Learning environment have integrated, among others, the use of computers, multimedia material, whiteboards, internet, Web 2.0 authoring tools, simulations, games and more recently mobile phones and immersive technologies such as 3D virtual worlds and augmented reality (Dror,2008). With the popularity of most technologies, it stimulates the learning environment and promotes students’ motivations, which are important factors in learning (Holzinger et al., 2005). Thus, which technology can be selected in class to improve students’ learning performance is a considerable factor. With rapid development of smartphone and tablet device, a number of learning behaviors by utilizing these devices quickly increased in recent years (Wu, Lee, Chang, & Liang, 2013). The use of Augmented Reality (AR) nowadays is becoming common in the field of education because of educational benefit from the mobile devices (smartphone, tablet PC, etc.).

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