Advances in Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits for Wireless Systems: Modeling and Design Technologies
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Advances in Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits for Wireless Systems: Modeling and Design Technologies

Arjuna Marzuki (Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia), Ahmad Ismat Abdul Rahim (Telekom Malaysia R&D, Malaysia) and Mourad Loulou (Group EleCom of LETI Laboratory, Tunisia)
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Release Date: August, 2011|Copyright: © 2012 |Pages: 380
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-886-4
ISBN13: 9781605668864|ISBN10: 1605668869|EISBN13: 9781605668871
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Description & Coverage
Description:

Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) is an electronic device that is widely used in all high frequency wireless systems. In developing MMIC as a product, understanding analysis and design techniques, modeling, measurement methodology, and current trends are essential.

Advances in Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits for Wireless Systems: Modeling and Design Technologies is a central source of knowledge on MMIC development, containing research on theory, design, and practical approaches to integrated circuit devices. This book is of interest to researchers in industry and academia working in the areas of circuit design, integrated circuits, and RF and microwave, as well as anyone with an interest in monolithic wireless device development.

Coverage:

The many academic areas covered in this publication include, but are not limited to:

  • LNA Invention
  • Low Noise Amplifiers
  • Millimeter Wave Integrated Circuit (MMWIC)
  • Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMICs)
  • Multi-Standard LNA
  • Power-Constrained Noise Optimization
  • RC Feedback
  • Reconfigurable LNA
  • Simultaneous Noise and Input Matching
  • WiMAX
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Editor Biographies
Arjuna Marzuki obtained his B.Eng (Hon) in Electronic (Com) from the Department of Electronic & Electrical Engineering at the University of Sheffield in United Kingdom, MSc from Universiti Sains Malaysia and PhD from Universiti Malaysia Perlis. He co-founded C-RAD Technologies (http://www.c-radtech.com.my) in year 2005 and remains as technical consultant with the company. Since 2006, Arjuna has joined School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia as a lecturer. He teaches analog circuit design and integrated circuit design. He is also an associate research fellow with Collaborative µElectronic Design Excellence Centre (CEDEC), USM. Arjuna has gained professional qualification as professional engineer when he was elected to the Register of The Society of Professional Engineers, SPE(UK) (http://www.professionalengineers-uk.org). He is also a corporate member of Institute of Engineering and Technology (IET)- MIET, a fellow of The International Institute of Engineers (IIE), a senior member of International Association of Computer Science & Information Technology (IACSIT). Arjuna has to-date filed 4 international patents and published more than 20 technical papers. He has developed more than 20 commercial products during his employment with Hewlett-Packard/Agilent Technologies and IC Microsystems.
Ahmad Ismat Abdul Rahim (drismat@tmrnd.com.my) was born in Penang, Malaysia in 1971. He received his B.Eng (Hons.) in Electrical Engineering, MSc. in Microelectronics Systems Design and Ph.D in Microelectronics in 1994, 1995 and 1999 respectively, all from the University of Southampton, England, U.K. He was Technology Development Leader with MIMOS Berhad (www.mimos.my) involved in the development of 0.35um CMOS, BiCMOS and SiGe technologies; Wafer Fabrication Specialist & TCAD Sales Engineer for IC Microsystems Sdn. Bhd. (www.icmic.com) and Senior Design Engineer, Penang Design Center, Intel Microelectronics (M) Sdn. Bhd. responsible for design-process interaction analysis and device physics-design investigation and for P1263 (90nm) process model characterization for next generation chipset design. He is currently Associate Principal Researcher in the Advanced Physical Laboratory at Telekom Malaysia R&D Sdn. Bhd. (www.tmrnd.com.my), involved in the development of MMICs and RFICs for applications in Radio-Over-Fiber (ROF) and Fiber Wireless (FiWi) systems for Gbps Next Generation Broadband communication systems. Ahmad Ismat has published over 50 technical papers and filed 4 patents. His research interests are in device and circuit design and modeling for MMICs and RFICs.
Dr. Mourad Loulou was born in Sfax, Tunisia in 1968. He received the Engineering Diploma from the National School of Engineers of Sfax in 1993. He received his Ph.D. degree in 1998 in electronics system design from the University of Bordeaux France. He joints the electronic and information technology laboratory of Sfax "LETI" since 1998 and he has been assistant Professor at the National School of Engineers of Sfax from 1999. Since 2004 he obtained his HDR from the University of Sfax and he has been an associate Professor. Currently he supervises the Analogue, Mixed Mode and RF Design Group EleCom of LETI Laboratory. His current research interests are on Analogue, Mixed and RF CMOS integrated circuits for communications and design automation of analogue CMOS Integrated Circuits. He is senior member IEEE; he is currently the IEEE Tunisia Section and CAS Chapter chair.
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Preface

One of the creative device innovations in recent decades is the mobile phone, which provides users with a simple anytime and anywhere communication tool. Originally designed for interpersonal communication, today mobile phones are capable of connecting their users to a wide variety of Internet-enabled services and applications, which can vary from a simplified web browser to a GPS-enabled navigation system.

So far, current research has focused mostly on applications designed for 2G, 3G and 4G (i.e., for the communications sector).

Now, with emerging new wireless devices, understanding the development techniques of the integrated circuit devices has become very important. The future impact of these integrated circuit devices include green technologies, healthcare and safety/security technologies.  

Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMIC) are one of the integrated circuit devices which support the development of the mobile phone and corresponding infrastructure. They are also widely used in all high frequency wireless systems. In developing MMIC as a product, understanding the process, analysis techniques, design techniques, modeling, measurement methodology and awareness of current product invention are therefore essential.

Example of MMIC devices are low noise amplifier, mixer, power amplifier, oscillator and T/R switch. The integration of these devices into a single monolithic (transceiver) is a norm for radio frequency range (up to GHz).

The design of these MMIC devices depend on the process/device technology. State of the art silicon technology is normally employed for low frequency and therefore a transceiver design is doable. For higher frequency (multi GHz), compound technology is normally employed. In the future, there will be more integration of these devices using this technology.

Electronic Design Automation (EDA) is available for digital integrated circuit design, but for MMIC design, it only confines around computer aided design (CAD). Hopefully, in the future the will more work on EDA as a tool for MMICs.

Undoubtedly, three segments of knowledge are important in developing these MMICs devices. They are theory, design and practical approaches.

This book is a collective effort of many researchers and practitioners from industry and academia. It offers a variety of perspectives on MMIC and RFIC and provides several experience reports with experiments and surveys.

The book opens with a section on theory, which consists of five chapters. Chapter 1, Multi-Standard Multi-Band Reconfigurable LNA by Mord Tarif Mustafa describes a new low noise amplifier (LNA) for a multi-standard mobile receiver based on reconfigurability concept. The LNA design is based on the inductively-degenerated common-source (IDCS) topology as it has been proven to be a good choice in designing multi-standard multi-band LNA. The design is using 0.18 µm CMOS technology. Chapter 2, LNA Inventions by Norlaili Mohd. Noh surveys five LNA topologies. They were studied, analyzed and compared in this chapter. The topologies are the Simultaneous Noise and Input Matching (SNIM), Power-Constrained Simultaneous Noise and Input Matching (PCSNIM), Current-Reuse (CR) and Folded-Cascode (FC) LNAs. The last topology is the PCSNIM with buffer. Chapter 3, Multiband Multi-Standard LNA with CPW Transmission Line Inductor by M. Ben Amor, M. Loulou, S. Quintanel and D. Pasquet, presents a wide band LNA design for IEEE802.16 standard with the CMOS 0.35 µm technology. In this LNA, a CPW transmission line is used to design the inductive degeneration inductor of 0.38 nH. The circuit has a S21 of 12 dB, a noise figure less than 3 dB and an input/output reflection coefficient less than -10 dB between 2 and 6GHz. Chapter 4, Design of Low Noise Amplifiers through Flow-Graphs and their Optimization by the Simulated Annealing Technique by M. Fakhfakh, M. Boughariou, A. Sallem, and M. Loulou presents the optimal design of Low Noise Amplifiers (LNAs). The basic idea consists of optimizing performances of LNAs by a direct action on the scattering parameters. A symbolic approach, namely the Coates Flow-Graph technique, is used to automatically generate symbolic expressions of the impedance parameters and, thus, those of the scattering parameters. The Simulated Annealing optimization technique is applied to determine the optimal sizing of the LNA. Chapter 5, Optimization of CMOS Quadrature VCO Using a Graphical Method by Hassene Mnif, Dorra Mellouli and Mourad Loulou describes the design and the optimization of Quadrature Voltage Controlled Oscillators (QVCOs) based on the coupling of two LC-tank VCO. This work covers the phase noise analysis, a graphical optimization approach, already used to optimize LC oscillator phase noise, to optimize QVCO phase noise while satisfying design constraints such as power dissipation, tank amplitude, tuning range and start up condition.


Designs are discussed in the second part of the book. Chapter 6, The Design and Modeling of 2.4 and 3.5 GHz MMIC PA by Chin Guek Ang discusses the design of MMIC power amplifiers for wireless application by using 0.15 µm GaAs Power Pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistor (PHEMT) technology with a gate width of 100 µm and 10 fingers at 2.4 GHz and 3.5 GHz. The design methodology for power amplifier design can be broken down into three main sections: architecture design, small-signal design, and large-signal optimization. Chapter 7, The Design and Modeling of 2.4 GHz and 3.5 GHz MMIC LNA, by Ching Wen Yip describes the LNA that was designed using cascode topology with feedback techniques which produces better matching and unconditionally stable over the entire desired frequencies. Chapter 8, Design of Medium Power Amplifier Using GaAs PHEMT Technology for Wireless Applications by Amiza Rasmi presents the design of single-stage and two-stage medium power amplifiers (MPAs) using GaAs PHEMT technology for the wireless applications. The single-stage MPA was designed using 0.15 µm GaAs PHEMT technology to be operated at 3.5 GHz whereas the two-stage MPA was designed using 0.5 µm GaAs PHEMT technology to be operated at 5.8 GHz. The MPAs employ a simple RC feedback in order to linearize the stages as well as to improve the circuit stability and to control the gain. Chapter 9, The Design and Modeling of 30 GHz Microwave Front-End by Wan Yeen Ng and Xhiang Rhung Ng discusses a millimeter wave integrated circuit (MMWIC) in frequency of 30 GHz especially switch (SPDT), medium power amplifier (MPA) and low noise amplifier (LNA). The switch is developed using a commercial 0.15 µm GaAs pHEMT technology. It achieves low loss and high isolation for millimeter wave applications. The circuit and layout drawing of SPDT switch are done by using Advanced Design System (ADS) software.

Practical approaches are discussed in the last section of the book, which consists of two chapters.  Chapter 10, Inventions of Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits by Arjuna Marzuki introduces the inventions of Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO), Mixer, Low Noise Amplifiers (LNA), Power Amplifiers (PA) and Transmit-Receive Switch (T/R). A first time right IC concept is also discussed in the chapter. Last chapter, RF and Microwave Test of MMICs: from Qualification to Mass Production by Mohamed MABROUK describes some basic characteristic responses that must be known for each Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits. The main parameters such Return Loss, Insertion Losses or Gain, Power at 1dB compression, InterModulation Products or Noise Figure are very important and have to be measured before using the device in final applications.

With an in-depth coverage of a variety of advances in Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits for Wireless Systems, this book aims to to provide a central source of reference on MMIC development which covers knowledge in analysis, design, modeling, measurement and inventions. Today, there is a growing trend of multistandard and multiband, which will lead to an increased interest in publications covering different aspects of circuit techniques and methodology to make multimode SOC.

This book will be of interest to researchers in industry and academia working in the areas of circuit design, integrated circuit, and RF and microwave, to graduate and undergraduate students, and anyone with an interest in monolithic wireless devices development.

The editor would like to acknowledge the help of all involved in the collation and review process of the book, without whose support the project could not have been satisfactorily completed.

Most of the authors are also served as referees for articles written by other authors. Thanks to all those who provided comprehensive reviews. Their comments, but constructive, about the chapters have been very useful and much appreciated.

Special thanks also go to the publishing team at IGI Global. In particular to Julia Mosemann. Finally, I wish to thank all of the authors for their insights and excellent contributions to this book.


Arjuna Marzuki
Universiti Sains Malaysia

Ahmad Ismat Abdul Rahim
Telekom R&D Malaysia

Mourad Loulou
Group EleCom of LETI Laboratory