Internet and Distributed Computing Advancements: Theoretical Frameworks and Practical Applications

Internet and Distributed Computing Advancements: Theoretical Frameworks and Practical Applications

Jemal H. Abawajy (Deakin University, Australia), Mukaddim Pathan (Australian National University, Australia), Mustafizur Rahman (The University of Melbourne, Australia), Al-Sakib Khan Pathan (International Islamic University, Malaysia) and Mustafa Mat Deris (Universiti Tun Hussein Onn (UTHM), Malaysia)
Release Date: February, 2012|Copyright: © 2012 |Pages: 357
ISBN13: 9781466601611|ISBN10: 1466601612|EISBN13: 9781466601628|DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-0161-1


As software and computer hardware grows in complexity, networks have grown to match. The increasing scale, complexity, heterogeneity, and dynamism of communication networks, resources, and applications has made distributed computing systems brittle, unmanageable, and insecure.

Internet and Distributed Computing Advancements: Theoretical Frameworks and Practical Applications is a vital compendium of chapters on the latest research within the field of distributed computing, capturing trends in the design and development of Internet and distributed computing systems that leverage autonomic principles and techniques. The chapters provided within this collection offer a holistic approach for the development of systems that can adapt themselves to meet requirements of performance, fault tolerance, reliability, security, and Quality of Service (QoS) without manual intervention.

Topics Covered

The many academic areas covered in this publication include, but are not limited to:

  • Advances in Internet Architectures and Protocols
  • Autonomous Distributed Systems
  • Content Delivery Networks
  • Dynamic Resource Provisioning
  • Energy Efficient Autonomic Systems
  • Security in Communication Networks
  • Self-Managing Grid Systems
  • Sensor Network Data Management
  • SLA Negotiation
  • Virtualized Environments

Reviews and Testimonials

This book entitled Internet and Distributed Computing Advancements: Theoretical Frameworks and Practical Applications, focuses on theoretical frameworks and practical applications. It is an attempt to put together some of the critical aspects of internet and distributed systems from theoretical to practical issues.

– Jemal H. Abawajy (Deakin University, Australia), Mukaddim Pathan (CSIRO, Australia), Mustafizur Rahman (The University of Melbourne, Australia), Al-Sakib Khan Pathan (International Islamic University, Malaysia) and Mustafa Mat Deris (Universiti Tun Huss

Table of Contents and List of Contributors

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Internet is an essential tool in modern life. Though the initial use of Internet was restricted to the people in touch with technology only, now-a-days all kinds of people from different backgrounds and areas need Internet for their specific areas of interest as well as for daily life. It is a remarkable achievement that Internet is now used for trading, business, education, banking, searching, advertising, auctioning, research works, politics, movements, conferencing, and many other purposes related to our day-to-day living. New concepts related to Internet are also emerging or getting clearer shapes day by day like Future Internet, Next-Generation Internet, Internet of Things (IoT), Internet for tiny embedded system like sensors, etc. Side-by-side, the use of mobile and wireless devices such as PDA, laptop, and cell phones for accessing the Internet has paved the way for related distributed computing technologies to flourish through recent developments.

In general terms, a distributed system is defined as a system that consists of several autonomous computers that communicate through a computer network. Usually there is a common goal that all these networked computers try to achieve. A computer program that runs in a distributed system is called a distributed program, and distributed programming is the process of writing such programs. The same definitions could be rewritten by considering different types of computing devices instead of only computers in traditional sense. With the advancements of micro-electronics, many low-resource computing devices have been devised that can form useful distributed systems. One of the most recent attractive technologies is wireless sensor networks. Sensors are small computing devices that form a distributed system or network over a target area to collect and process required data. The workloads and network traffic in such type of distributed system could be divided among the participants. Thus, sensor network becomes a major type of distributed system. Other commonly known distributed systems are various types of telecommunications networks like; telephone networks and cellular networks, computer networks such as the Internet, World Wide Web (WWW) and Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks, multiplayer online games network and virtual reality network, distributed database network, distributed information processing network (e.g. airline ticket reservation system), aircraft control system, industrial control system, clustered and grid systems.

Despite the rapid advancements, the increasing scale, complexity, heterogeneity, and dynamism of Internet and distributed computing systems with respect to communication networks, resources and applications have made such systems brittle, unmanageable and insecure. This scenario calls for innovative solutions to deal with the complexity, dynamism, heterogeneity, and uncertainty of distributed systems and provide a holistic approach for the development of systems that can meet the requirements of performance, fault tolerance, reliability, security, and Quality of Service (QoS). Given all the works done so far and the facts and figures, it is necessary to compile in a single volume what we have achieved so far, what is going on currently in academic and industry environments for developing the tools and concepts, and what we could expect in the coming days or after a good number of years from now.

This book entitled Internet and Distributed Computing Advancements: Theoretical Frameworks and Practical Applications, focuses on theoretical frameworks and practical applications. It is an attempt to put together some of the critical aspects of Internet and Distributed Systems from theoretical to practical issues. The book was envisioned to be a premier reference source for the academics, students, researchers, readers, and knowledge seekers in the related fields. We have focused on including chapters that can easily explain a particular topic, sometimes even a complex issue. After a rigorous review process, 11 chapters have been finally selected for inclusion in this book. The reviewers and editors who handled the review processes are the experts in the relevant fields.

The sequence of chapters in the book is important to mention. We divided the accepted 11 chapters into 2 sections: (1) Internet and Distributed Computing Systems and (2) Wireless Sensor Networks.

In the first section, we start with the chapters dealing with Internet and Distributed Computing systems. The aim of the introductory chapter titled “TCP within Wireless Internet: Existing Solutions and Remaining Research Challenges” is to discuss the main TCP issues and challenges that influence TCP performance, within different wireless data packet communication networks taking into consideration the specific characteristics of each of them. In this chapter, Ghaleb-Seddik et al. have presented the work done in order to improve TCP performance and to cope with new data transmission networks technologies and topologies (such as Wi-Fi, WiMAX, cellular, wireless, mobile, ad-hoc, mesh, and vehicular NETWORKS). This chapter also discusses related research challenges that should be studied and evaluated within such wireless networks. In the 2nd chapter, “Enhancement of e-Learning Systems and Methodologies Through Advancements in Distributed Computing Technologies,” Caviglione and Coccoli discuss the integration of classical e-learning paradigms with new advancements of distributed computing, such as: the usage of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) techniques to produce network-independent overlays, also by enabling direct student-to-student exchanges; the integration, through grid-based middleware, of real or virtual devices, plants and Sensors Network (SN) within the e-learning environment; and the adoption of a distributed e-learning system to spread culture through mobile devices, with emphasis on satellite communications. Mahdin and Abawajy in 3rd chapter “Fault Tolerance Mechanism in Distributed RFID Readers,” address reliability and dependability issues of RFID systems. RFID components such as the readers are prone to failures with serious consequences to the overall system. It presents an approach that detects the faulty readers with the aim to minimize the impacts of the faulty readers on the system reliability and dependability. Performance evaluation of the approach against other techniques is presented to show that it performs reasonably well in the presence of faulty readers. Fernando and Abawajy in the chapter, “A Security Framework for Networked RFID,” present a conceptual framework for analyzing the threats, attacks and security requirements pertaining to networked RFID systems. The vulnerabilities of, and the threats to the system are identified using the threat model. The security framework itself consists of two main concepts: (1) the attack model: which identifies and classifies the possible attacks and (2) the system model which identifies the security requirements. The framework gives readers a method with which to analyze the threats any given system faces. Those threats can then be used to identify the attacks possible on that system and get a better understanding of those attacks. This chapter also allows readers to easily identify all the security requirements of that system and identify how those requirements can be met. Finally, Ezumah and Adekunle write the fifth chapter of the first section titled, “A Review of Privacy, Internet Security Threat, and Legislation in Africa: Focusing on Nigeria, Kenya, and South Africa”. This chapter serves as a collection of works that were done in the area of cybersecurity in Africa - with a focus on four countries representing the Cardinal points in Africa: Kenya, Nigeria, Egypt, and South Africa. Detailed information is presented on the legislative framework proposed and implemented by these countries to combat and control cybercrimes. These legislative measures were commended, criticized and factors that militate their implementation are also discussed in this chapter. Finally, the chapter posits areas that the African nations can improve in their quest for making the cyberspace safer.

The second section focuses on wireless sensor network related issues. “A Walk through Programming Models for Sensor Networks” by Pathan et al. presents a survey of existing programming models for sensor networks and classifies them by following a layered approach, based on their level of abstractions. It establishes the fact that using the right programming model can have enormous impact in the development, deployment and maintainability of sensor networks. This chapter also endeavors to lay out a clear guideline to choose the right approach for programming sensor networks for application development, thus potentially alleviating the heavy burden for programmers. Then a survey chapter by Mirante and Ammari “Wireless Sensor Network Security Attacks: A Survey,” takes a representative survey of the types of security attacks WSNs may be subjected to. Additionally, steps that may be taken to mitigate these attacks are also discussed. Intrusion Detection Systems, a paradigm for monitoring network activities for malicious behavior, are introduced and specific examples of them are discussed. This chapter also establishes that fact that the introduction of new types of WSN applications will result in new types of security attacks and that WSN researchers and designers will always be playing catch up in their attempts to find and plug the latest security holes used by attackers. Haque and Yoshida present “Clustering in Wireless Sensor Networks: Context-Aware Approaches” which focuses on context aware clustering techniques that carry a great deal of importance among WSN routing protocols. It describes noteworthy context aware routing protocols such as: Context Adaptive Clustering, Data-Aware Clustering Hierarchy, Context-Aware Clustering Hierarchy, and Context-Aware Multilayer Hierarchical Protocol. Insights based on comprehensive investigation and analyses of these protocols have been included in this chapter with useful remarks. Since context awareness is considered as an integral part of Body Sensor Networks (BSN), a kind of WSN, this chapter also discusses issues related to context aware techniques used in BSN. Hady et al.’s “A Comparative Analysis of Hierarchical Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks” provides a detailed description of the characteristics of routing in wireless sensor networks; it describes the routing protocols used in these networks pointing out the advantages and disadvantages of each. It states the fact that wireless sensor networks have several restrictions e.g. limited energy supply, limited computing power and limited bandwidth, and hence, one of the main design goals of WSNs is to carry out data communication while trying to prolong the lifetime of the network and prevent connectivity degradation by employing efficient energy management techniques. Hu and Li, in their chapter, “Energy-Efficient MAC Protocols in Distributed Sensor Networks,” discuss the key elements of MAC design with an emphasis on energy efficiency. Furthermore, it reviews several typical MAC protocols proposed in the literature, comparing their energy conservation mechanism. Particularly, it presents a collaborative compression based MAC (CCP-MAC) protocol, which takes advantage of the overheard data to achieve energy savings. Finally, it compares the performance of CCP-MAC with related MAC protocols, illustrating their advantages and disadvantages. The final chapter of this section is the chapter 11 titled, “Low Loss Energy-Aware Routing Protocol for Data Gathering Applications in Wireless Sensor Network” by El-Basioni et al.

Author(s)/Editor(s) Biography

Jemal Abawajy is a faculty member at Deakin University and has published more than 100 articles in refereed journals and conferences as well as a number of technical reports. He is on the editorial board of several international journals and edited several international journals and conference proceedings. He has also been a member of the organizing committee for over 60 international conferences and workshops serving in various capacities including best paper award chair, general co-chair, publication chair, vice-chair, and program committee. He is actively involved in funded research in building secure, efficient, and reliable infrastructures for large-scale distributed systems. Towards this vision, he is working in several areas including: pervasive and networked systems (mobile, wireless network, sensor networks, grid, cluster, and P2P), e-science and e-business technologies and applications, and performance analysis and evaluation.
Mukaddim Pathan is a Research Scientist at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), the national government body of scientific research in Australia. He also holds the position of an Adjunct Lecturer at the Australian National University. Previously, he was a Research Fellow at the Cloud Computing and Distributed Systems (CLOUDS) Lab of the University of Melbourne, Australia. He holds a PhD in Computer Science and Software Engineering from the University of Melbourne. His research interests include data management, resource allocation, load balancing, and coordination policies in wide-area distributed systems such as content delivery networks, cloud computing, and sensor networks. He is one of the developers of MetaCDN that leverages the capabilities of existing storage Clouds for high performance content delivery. He is the editor of the book Content Delivery Networks, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, Vol. 9, Springer-Verlag, Germany. He has authored and co-authored a number of research papers in internationally recognized journals and conferences. He is involved in the organization of the UPGRADE-CN and IDCS workshops and is a PC member of several international conferences. He has edited a few research issues in reputed international journals and also serves as the reviewer of a few renowned journals such as IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology (TCSVT), International Journal of Management Science (OMEGA), Journal of Network and Computer Applications (JNCA), Computer Communications, Computer Networks, Journal of Systems and Software, and IEEE Software. He is a member of IEEE, IEEE computer society, and ACM. For further information, please visit:
Mustafizur Rahman is a Consultant of Business Analytics and Optimization Service Line at IBM Australia. He also worked as Endeavour Research Fellow at the Institute of High Performance Computing, Agency for Science Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore. He received PhD degree from Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering at the University of Melbourne, Australia. His research interests include workflow scheduling and resource management in grid/cloud computing systems as well as fault-tolerance and load balancing in P2P and self-managing systems. He has been actively engaged in the research and development projects of CLOUDS Lab at the University of Melbourne and received the 2010 Endeavour Research Fellowship Award from the Australian Government. He has authored and co-authored several research papers in internationally recognized journals and conferences. He is a member of IEEE, IEEE Computer Society, and ACM. He has been involved in the organization of several international workshops and conferences. He also serves as the reviewer of renowned journals, including Future Generation Computer Systems (FGCS) and Concurrency & Computation: Practice & Experience (CCPE).
Al-Sakib Khan Pathan received the Ph.D. degree in Computer Engineering in 2009 from Kyung Hee University (KHU), South Korea. He received B.Sc. degree in Computer Science and Information Technology from Islamic University of Technology (IUT), Bangladesh, in 2003. He is currently an Assistant Professor and FYP Coordinator of the Computer Science Department in International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Malaysia. Till June 2010, he served as an Assistant Professor of the Computer Science and Engineering Department in BRAC University, Bangladesh. Prior to holding this position, he worked as a Researcher at Networking Lab, KHU, South Korea, till August 2009. His research interests include wireless sensor networks, network security, and e-services technologies. He has served as a Chair and a PC member in numerous international conferences/workshops. He is currently serving as the Editor-in-Chief of IJIDCS, an Area Editor of IJCNIS, and Editor of several other well-known journals and books. He also serves as a referee of a few renowned journals. He is a member of IEEE, IEEE ComSoc Bangladesh Chapter, and several other international organizations.
Mustafa Mat Deris received the Ph.D degree in Computer Science in 2002 from University Putra, Malaysia. He is currently a Professor in the Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn, Malaysia. He has published more than 150 articles in refereed journals and proceedings. He is on the editorial board of several international journals and conferences and also Guest Editor of International Journal of BioMedical Soft Computing and Human Science for Special Issue on “Soft Computing Methodologies and Its Applications” a reviewer of several international journals such as IEEE Transaction on Parallel and Distributed Computing, Journal of Parallel and Distributed Databases, Journal of Future Generation on Computer Systems, Elsevier Journal of Cluster Computing, Kluwer Journal of Computer Mathematics, and Taylor & Francis IEEE Conference on Cluster and Grid Computing. He has served as a program committee member and co-organizer for numerous international conferences/workshops including Grid and Peer-to-Peer Computing, (GP2P, 2005, 2006), Autonomic Distributed Data and Storage Systems Management (ADSM, 2005, 2006, 2007), and Grid Pervasive Computing Security, organizer for Rough and Soft Sets Theories and Applications (RSAA, 2010), Fukuoka, Japan, and Soft Computing and Data Engineering (SCDE, 2010), Jeju, Korea. His research interests include distributed databases, data grid, soft computing and data mining.