Redesigning Innovative Healthcare Operation and the Role of Knowledge Management

Redesigning Innovative Healthcare Operation and the Role of Knowledge Management

Murako Saito (Waseda University, Japan), Nilmini Wickramasinghe (Illinois Institute of Technology, USA), Masako Fuji (Nonprofit Organization TBI Rehabilitation Center, Japan) and Eliezer Geisler (Illinois Institute of Technology, USA)
Release Date: July, 2009|Copyright: © 2010 |Pages: 322|DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-284-8
ISBN13: 9781605662848|ISBN10: 1605662844|EISBN13: 9781605662855|ISBN13 Softcover: 9781616924058
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Description

In global environments, healthcare organizations are required to be flexible and resilient in coping with uncertain and complex circumstances.

Redesigning Innovative Healthcare Operation and the Role of Knowledge Management collects a compilation of chapters on how knowledge impacts the layout and design of the medical industry. A cutting-edge reference source within the field, this book provides comprehensive frameworks, constraints, and performances analyzed by experts within the healthcare sector.

Topics Covered

The many academic areas covered in this publication include, but are not limited to:

  • Cognitive rehabilitation
  • Eye-movement of cerebral palsy patients
  • Healthcare value
  • Home care and rehabilitation equipment
  • Improving organizational performances
  • Information interpretation in knowledge management
  • Information processing in knowledge management
  • Intelligence continuum and emergency and disaster scenarios
  • Knowledge management in healthcare operations
  • Organizational Learning and Leadership
  • Perceived organizational environment

Reviews and Testimonials

"This book builds an extensive conceptual framework for integration across all of the contributing fields."

– Dr. J. B. Silvers. Case Western Reserve University, USA

This is the first book I`ve seen on a topic that supports an area that is gaining much attention and demand. It is a source of information on the methods necessary for making key decisions in this area based on the evidence.

– Dr. Lena L. Watson, University of Phoenix, Doody's Book Review Selected as a Fall 2011 Shelf-Worthy Academic Title by Baker & Taylor.

Table of Contents and List of Contributors

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Preface

In 2005, two of the authors of this book attended to the 4th International Conference on the Hospital of the Future at Aalborg, Denmark. We took this opportunity to discuss the idea of a collaborative work concerning the applications of knowledge management(KM) to various aspects of the healthcare sector. We believed then and today are convinced that it is essential for healthcare globally to embrace the tools, techniques, technologies and tactics of KM to effect superior healthcare operations and we trust that this book helps to convey to our readers not only the importance of KM but why it is so integral in redesigning innovative healthcare operations.

In coping with the current complex and dynamic situation in the healthcare field, it is imperative for the creation of new ideas and values to foster an innovative workplace that enables an organization’s most critical resource, its knowledge workers to collaborate across and within disciplines. This can only be possible by embracing a socio-technical systems methodology (Emery.and Trist, 1965, Miller,1999), new pluralism and multi-paradigm intervention (Habermas, 1978, Drucker, 1992, Jackson,2000), which combine psycho-social, cognitive-psychological perspectives with physical/mechanical and information technology perspectives. In such an integrated approach, enterprise visions and responsibility necessary to propel organizational strategy are shared and strengthened, and individual value consciousness is aligned with a collective one. In contrast, cognitive misfits between internal and external world in individuals and collectives, and also among any stakeholders, frequently happen in current society which in turn leads collaborative work to be misdirected, and thereby the collaboration becomes difficult and problematic. Organizational performance can be improved by cognitive reliability and validity, and can be developed by viability of the participants. Timely and appropriate application of knowledge management methodology is essential to change the fields by sharing and spreading new value of knowledge beyond the barriers among academic disciplines, or beyond a particular interest limited to a specific field. In the organization embraced by socio-technical methodology, knowledge management plays a crucial role in enhancing organizational resilience/adaptability and in improving organizational performance especially during turbulence in uncertain and complex situations. Given the state of healthcare operations globally – contending with exponentially increasing costs, myriads of technology options and in most instances aging population problems – the tools and techniques of KM offer a welcome oasis after an extensive trek through the Sahara desert, indeed one might be tempted to state that KM might be the panacea for healthcare in this 21st century.

In an attempt to navigate through the relatively unchartered waters of knowledge management for healthcare organizations and more especially the role of knowledge management in redesigning innovative healthcare operations, this book presents essential theories, concepts, methodologies and evidence-based applications. In particular, the reader will find the key tools and techniques necessary for the designing of innovative healthcare operations presented in the following chapters. Knowledge management provides two thinking modes, normal scientific and post normal scientific modes. In normal science, the problems are solved by nomothetic approaches to causality, while in the post normal scientific thinking mode, the problems are appreciated by hermeneutic approaches to an acausal phase of social event service. Knowledge management plays an essential role in continuously transforming the organization into a dynamic and resilient organization by facilitating the interpretation of current issues in the field. Hence, knowledge management provides efficient and effective methodologies for creating a reliable organizational climate/culture which will emerge synergetic power of amplifying together (Haken, 1978, Shimuzu,1992), not simply fusing and living together, and for creating an innovative work atmosphere where collaboration and alignment among different disciplines can ensue. Given the universal need to embrace the key tools and techniques of knowledge management and yet the challenge to apply these tools and techniques appropriately in the manufacturing and service sectors as well as the community at large, this book focuses on underscoring both the universal need for knowledge management and the importance of contextual applicability and understanding the different nuances on the events, as in management by the participants’ value which leads to innovative operations.

This book is recommended for university students, researchers, practitioners or service- providers primarily in the healthcare field as well as to those who are interested in knowledge management and eager to develop their current understanding of organizational environments in order to transform them into innovative ones, such as managers and leaders in team work/project, management staff in industry, professional healthcare workers, nurses, physicians, hospital administration managers.

The book is written with four explicit sections and has two implicit parts. Sections I and II combined make up the first implicit part of the book which focuses on the essential concepts and critical aspects of KM. Specifically Section I provides an introduction to the fundamental aspects of knowledge and knowledge management, while Section II provides exposure to important methodologies and emphasizes the importance of the socio-technical perspective for effective KM. Thus, Section I and II provide the reader with the essential tools and techniques for harnessing good KM practices. Section III and Section IV make up the second half of the book. In these two sections the attention turns to evidence of examples in various areas of the healthcare sector (Section III) and then to evidence in local communities and family lives in Section IV. Given that healthcare operations have significant impact not only to healthcare providers and patients but also the community, it is important to illustrate the impact of redesigned healthcare operations and /or the importance of redesigning existing healthcare operations to/for these various stakeholders.

Section I: Fundamental Aspect of Knowledge and Knowledge Management

Introduction for Section I

Chapter 1(Wickramasinghe) describes the knowledge economy for innovating organization by providing definitions of basic concepts, knowledge, knowledge economy, knowledge management, and explains the knowledge spiral in information processing in society as well as knowledge creation from two major perspectives, people-oriented perspective and technology-oriented perspective.

Chapter 2 (Saito) explains that managing knowledge facilitates the process of organizational learning and enhances organizational climate/culture in which the participants feel confident and are inspired in contributing to organization in order to harness competitive advantages. Organizational learning capabilities and organizational learning process models are described in relevance of knowledge management to organizational learning and technology

Chapter 3 (Wickramasinghe) discusses the importance of establishing and sustaining an appropriate KMI (knowledge management infrastructure) in order to provide the organization with the best possible foundation from which to leverage its intellectual assets.

Chapter 4(Geisler) provides the key attributes of normal science and the recently heralded post-normal science and argues the subjugation of post-normal science to social, economic urgencies and exigencies is only a matter of degree. This chapter brings researchers in the area of social sciences an inquiry into theory-in-use as well as espoused and established theories.

Section II: Approaches to Operations Management and Human Action

Introduction for Section II

Chapter 5(Saito) describes conceptual framework of whole systems, holistic or integral social systems, classification/categorization of human cognition-action in individual level as well as organizational culture in collective level. Typology of methodologies for intervening complex social systems and for changing organizational culture is also explained.

Chapter 6 (Saito) provides knowledge information processing loops and explains multiplicity of knowledge information processing, three throughputs of knowledge information and organizational learning, feed back and feed forward processes of knowledge information, holistic management and knowledge information interpretation are described for the argument of future study in aligning of misfit between operation management and human action

Chapter 7 (Wickramasinghe) presents the model of the intelligence continuum. This model outlines a structured approach that is particularly useful in emergency and disaster scenarios in order to make effective and decisive decisions which draw upon the power of the extant knowledge base.

Chapter 8 (Wickramasinghe) discusses the need to incorporate post modern philosophies such as that the work of Foucault with classical theories such as agency theory, to develop a rich lens for understanding the dynamics of knowledge and its management in innovating organizations. This chapter ends section II.

Section III: Evidence from Healthcare Sector and Manufacturing plants

Introduction for Section III

Chapter 9 (Wickramasinghe) describes key considerations for the adoption and implementation of knowledge management in healthcare operation,

Chapter 10 (Wickramasinghe) describes that it is only possible to realize the healthcare value proposition by embracing the tools, techniques, strategies and protocols of KM. Chapter 11 (Saito) presents evidence on the relationship of perceived organizational condition and performance reliability which are observed in hospitals in Japan. Occurrence of erroneous actions relates to organizational control and also relates to specific working time during 24 hours. Cognitive reliability on work conditions and work environment played critical roles in improving work performance and reducing human errors during the course of providing high quality of care.

Chapter 12 (Saito) provides evidence on the relationship between interpersonal relationship and organizational performances in the case of hospital nurses. Team reciprocity, communication accuracy and performance reliability representing organizational performance are provided and compared by emotional regulation, communication type and appreciation level of professional nursing work. Chapter 13 (Saito) presents evidence on the interference of mood states at work with perceived performance, perceived efficacy and perceived health by using industrial workers. Mood states at work are influential moderators in giving effect on workers’ perceptions. The perceptions of performance , self-efficacy, health status significantly differed among mood states at work, and vigorous mood at work gave positive effect on workers’ perceptions which leads to the enhancement of work ability and interpersonal management competency. This chapter gives some hints for the alignment of organizational environment. It is important to note that while this chapter doesn’t specifically discuss healthcare operations but the lessons from it are most pertinent to the healthcare sector and hence its inclusion. Chapter 14 (Saito) provides some evidence on organizational learning observed in industries in Japan, and discusses organizational learning as a leverage in developing organizational performance. Mediating roles of organizational learning and leadership by type are crucial in improving organizational performances and in changing organizational climate coping with complex social environment. As with the previous chapter we note that while this chapter doesn’t specifically discuss healthcare operations but the lessons from it are most pertinent to the healthcare sector and hence its inclusion.

Section IV: Evidence of Empirical Studies and Investigations in Local Communities and Family Lives

Introduction for Section IV

Chapter 15 (Karashima) provides experimental evidence of eye-movement and performance in reading still documents of Japanese characters (Experiment 1) and scrolling documents (Experiment 2) by comparing between cerebral palsy (CP)patients and students. Characteristic eye-movement and performance of CP patients were clarified by comparing reading time, eye fixation duration, frequency of fixation, intervals between eye fixation in Experiment 1, and the most comfortable scrolling speed in Experiment 2. Appropriate daily care supported by the tools of knowledge management as well as by specific disciplinary technology is required for redesigning social lives of the CP patients with characteristic eye-movements.

Chapter 16 (Nishiguchi) presents barrier-free design for the aged who need home care and rehabilitation equipment. Home care and rehabilitation equipment are described as the method to remove barriers, in the transfer from bed or chair, mobility, eating, dressing, taking bath, verbal and auditory communication. The effectiveness of homecare and rehabilitation equipment is also described in emphasizing the importance of environmental adjustment for the aged, and the difference between male and female users in the feelings of satisfaction and well-being.

Chapter 17 (Fujii) describes the roles of home-based daily cognitive rehabilitation in two severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) clients, Client A and B. This chapter provides evidence on how they are cost-effective and easy practice in using work training book regularly at home or group-based. The step-by-step processes in their home and the community where the TBI clients were engaged and reliable relationship among stakeholders, care-givers, supervisors and the clients, provided the clues and tips for clients to get fitted to the job and to successful social reentry.

Chapter 18 (Fujii) provides the outcomes of cognitive rehabilitation tests carried out by using young clients with severe traumatic brain injury(TBI). This Chapter suggested that memory deficits of the TBI clients were deeply concerned with their poor social integration and memory recovery is possible even in severe TBI clients, if appropriate daily training which fits to the client could be carried out.

Evidence-based practice leverages in developing knowledge management and in creating new values which change the organizational environment. The organizational environment continues to be transformed and enhanced by preparing a set of scenarios for the future by means of multi-modal methodological approaches, juxtaposing hermeneutic approaches as well as nomothetic approaches. The authors, belonging to different disciplines, present some evidence of current circumstances and the need of organizational change in various healthcare scenarios from the viewpoints ranging from Management Systems Engineering, Human Factors Engineering, Brain Research, Management Sciences, Information Sciences, to Social and Health Sciences, Cognitive Psychology, Industrial Organizational Psychology, Rehabilitation Psychology. The chapters we have prepared in this book are designed to help all the readers to gain deeper insights and a broader understanding of knowledge management and how it impacts a multiplicity of interwoven disciplines, fields and events, and moreover that application of knowledge management to any organizational context will indeed facilitate superior outcomes. The studies and investigations presented in this book are only some examples intended to illustrate key points rather than be representative of all scenarios that require knowledge management. Most of our studies were to determine the reason why these kinds of events happened and to suggest how to take an action in operation while a few of the studies describe the application of knowledge management methodology suitable to each event. What we present then in the following pages is a sample of the role of knowledge management in redesigning innovative healthcare operations and we underscore the need for on going research in this key area. We hope that all our readers will enjoy this book and find some hints and tips in the chapters introduced in this book as they try to grapple with the role of knowledge management in their own areas of interest and specialization.

    Murako Saito
    Nilmini Wickramasinghe

Author(s)/Editor(s) Biography

Murako Saito is a representative of Health Care Technology Management Research Center in Tokyo, and research adviser in the Institute of Future Healthcare Policy in Waseda University. She had been a professor of cognitive ergonomics, organizational ergonomics in Graduate and Undergraduate Courses in Industrial and Management Systems Engineering, School of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, and as the position that preceded Waseda University, she had been a professor of Industrial Health, Healthcare Management in Dept. of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Ryukyu. She received PhD of Health Sciences from Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo where she graduated. She had been a Fulbright Scholarship Grantee authorized by US Department for continuing to study in Graduate School of Public Health and Teachers College, Columbia University (New York, USA) . Dr. Saito has been involved in several associations and served as editorial boards of national and international journals. She serves currently for NPO Joint Lecture-Consultation Plans. Her major research interests are on organizational redesign and transformation into innovative organizations by strategic knowledge management in the processes of cognition-action coupling or the recursive processes of organizational learning, and by fostering the participants to be a healthy actor and harnessing potentiality of the participants in individual and collective levels.
Nilmini,Wickramasinghe [PhD , MBA, GradDipMgtSt, BSc.,AmusA (piano) A.mus A (violin] researches and teaches in various areas of MIS with a special focus of the confluence of KM and healthcare. She is well published with over 100 refereed articles, book chapters, numerous books and an encyclopaedia. Dr. Wickramasinghe regularly presents her work throughout Australasia, Europe and North America. She is the US representative of HCTM (Healthcare Technology Management) association, holds a professor position at RMIT University Australia and is the associate director for the Centre for the Management of Technology at IIT, in Chicago. In addition, Dr Wickramasinghe is the editor in chief of two journals published by InderScience: IJBET, Intl. J Biomedical Engineering and Technology ( www.inderscience.com/ijbet) and IJNVO, Intl. J Networking and Virtual Organisations (www.inderscience.com/ijnvo).
Masako Fujii is a director of Non-Profitable-Organization of TBI (Traumatic Brain Injury) Rehabilitation Center located in Tokyo. Dr.Fujii had been an associate professor in Medical School, Hamamatsu University and a professor in Nursing School of Hamamatsu University after making carrier of psychological clinician and also brain researcher as being an assistant and instructor at Bain Research Institute of University of Tokyo. Dr.Fujii has a wide experience of consulting with many clients with TBI and their families by giving them progress programs on the abilities of attention, memory and executive functions she prepared for each client and his/her families, and she has also conducting lectures on cognitive rehabilitation for the practitioners and for the classes in nursing schools in Japan.
Eliezer (Elie) Geisler is a distinguished professor at the Stuart School of Business, Illinois Institute of Technology and Director of the IIT Center for the Management of Medical Technology. He holds a doctorate from the Kellogg School at Northwestern University. Dr. Geisler is the author of nearly 100 papers in the areas of technology and innovation management, the evaluation of R&D, science and technology, and the management of healthcare and medical technology. He is the author of several books, including: Managing the Aftermath of Radical Corporate Change (1997), The Metrics of Science and Technology (2000), also translated into Chinese, Creating Value with Science and Technology (2001) and Installing and Managing Workable Knowledge Management Systems (With Rubenstein, 2003). His forthcoming books are: Knowledge and Knowledge Systems: Learning from the Wonders of the Mind, and a textbook: Knowledge Management Systems: Theory and Cases (With Wickramasinghe). He consulted for major corporations and for many U.S. federal departments, such as Defense, Agriculture, Commerce, EPA, Energy, and NASA. Dr. Geisler is the co-founder of the annual conferences on the Hospital of the Future, and the Health Care Technology and Management Association, a joint venture of several universities in 10 countries. He serves on various editorial boards of major journals. His current research interests include the nature of knowledge management in general and in complex systems, such as healthcare organizations.