Strategic Pervasive Computing Applications: Emerging Trends

Strategic Pervasive Computing Applications: Emerging Trends

Varuna Godara (CEO of Sydney College of Management, Australia)
Indexed In: SCOPUS
Release Date: February, 2010|Copyright: © 2010 |Pages: 358
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-61520-753-4
ISBN13: 9781615207534|ISBN10: 1615207538|EISBN13: 9781615207541|ISBN13 Softcover: 9781616922672
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Description & Coverage

Through use of networked embedded devices, pervasive computing leaves the concept of personal computers far behind and are offers new opportunities for businesses to avail and to offer to their customers.

Strategic Pervasive Computing Applications: Emerging Trends combines the views and opinions of leading experts and practitioners in the field of pervasive computing technologies and infrastructure, considering trends and developments in pervasive applications. This innovative publication provides a significant reference source for professionals, managers, risk assessment practitioners, policy makers, and academicians throughout the world.


The many academic areas covered in this publication include, but are not limited to:

  • Ambient Intelligence
  • Component Based Software Engineering
  • Genetic Algorithms
  • Perpetual user interfaces
  • Pervasive context-aware applications
  • Pervasive devices
  • Pervasive education environments
  • Pervasive wireless sensor networks
  • Security attacks in pervasive computing
  • Security in pervasive computing
Reviews and Testimonials

"This book provides an exciting overview of developments in pervasive computing technology, security concerns in pervasive computing and innovative applications and strategic trends. While in recent years, numerous authored and edited books have emerged in the area of pervasive computing, this book provides an important "brick" towards building the pervasive computing "high tower", with diverse perspectives. I trust you will enjoy the range and diversity of, not only technology, but also applications this book offers, while capturing the spirit of making computing ubiquitous and pervasive."

– Seng W. Loke, La Trobe University, Australia
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Editor Biographies
Varuna Godara is the CEO of Sydney College of Management, Australia and SAP Australia certified consultant. Dr. Godara is the chair of International Congress on Pervasive Computing and Management. Previously, she worked as Director of Marketing at SCBIT and was a permanent faculty in Department of Business Systems, School of Management in University of Western Sydney, Australia from July 2003 to September 2008. Dr. Godara received her Bachelor degree in Computer Science in 1997, MBA in 1999, Maters in Computer Applications, and PhD in 2003. Her research interests are mainly in ERP, Pervasive business, E-business management, e-governance and innovation in business. She has authored a book in 2008, has contributed chapters in refereed books, papers in many refereed journals and presented research work in reputed conferences. She has also published popular articles and poems in various books and magazines. She was awarded with Roll of Honour two times by Kurukshetra University, India and was awarded once by National Library of Poetry, US.
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There is no question about the ability of computing to offer unlimited solutions, although complexity has been a very big problem for not only the application developers and the maintenance teams, but also for the users. Intention of the developers of Pervasive computing applications is to reduce the complexity, extend ad-hoc process based programming, limit innovation and maintenance costs, increase portability and offer absolutely networked sensor nodes to empower the users without them realizing their presence. Pervasive computing, Ubiquitous computing or transparent computing they all are proving to be incredible technology that have the capacity to empower individuals by equipping them with the small or little tools to look after their health and wellness, work, enjoy, communicate and stay in touch, while they are mobile. Pervasive computing can initiate and allow communities to develop and communicate their mission, culture and agendas and grow across the physical location or time. For business as well as non-business organizations it is aiming to be a receiver of real-time corporate data, a creator of an up-to-date knowledge base and a link connecting business intelligence, business processes and business rules engines.

The focus of this book is on the ever increasing capacity of Pervasive context-aware applications that are aiming to develop into context-responsive applications in different application areas. The real value to the users and effective ubiquity do not come from just the embedded sensors, mobile and portable devices, middleware or end user applications, and networks, it also needs support of different other technological components such as perpetual user interfaces, Power line Carrier Systems (PCS), gesture and motion readers, emotion processors, tracking- marking- visualisation terminals, Neuro Linguistic Programming, Genetic Algorithms, high performance computing involving micro electromechanical systems (MEMS), etc, multicore parallel computing, field programmable logic gates (FPLG), Software Parallel Processing, symmetric multiprocessing (SMP), Data warehousing (DW), ad hoc sensor networks, flexible transistors, application-specific integrated circuitry (ASIC), system on a chip (SoC), reconfigurable processors and much more. This book includes the trends in Pervasive computing applications and discusses in details various applications of Pervasive computing such as Gaze tracking, knowledge super corridors, magic pointing, Automatic Question Set Generation, geometry sensitive devices, Tele- Immersive Psychotherapy, wearable computers, smart homes and smart buildings, smart matter, wireless cities, etc.

In continuation to various tools and technologies involved in Pervasive computing this book discusses the types of multi-class classification algorithms and identifies Support Vector Machine (SVM) as most accepted classification technique in literature. It recognizes choice of kernel function and its parameter as very important for better performance of support vector machine. To improve the performance of support vector machine the author proposes the use of AdaBoost approach and presents new kernel functions and a robust algorithm to automatically determine the suitable kernel function and its parameters.

Project management is an important yet controversial management discipline. Projects drive businesses irrespective of the industry sector. They ruin the businesses as well with the cost, time and pain unless they are carefully planned, rolled out and implemented. Sometimes these projects can’t start on time, sometimes project managers can’t work within limits and sometimes they don’t identify problems in the project stages in time. Pervasive computing projects are no exceptions. This book discusses the application of periodic wave concepts in the management of Parallel execution of projects or software. It proposes new and dynamic way of using periodic wave equations to estimate the flow of execution of the critical or run-away project that scores over the PERT/CPM due to its dynamic nature.

In order to provide dynamic and ad hoc services in Pervasive computing environment it is important to consider developing reusable software components. Different architectures such as Product-line architectures are being used to assist in reusing the software components across Pervasive computing settings. These reusable software components are small in size and are designed to be adaptive to heterogeneous hardware platforms and are capable of being delivered by air. This book discusses variations and properties that may be required for different pervasive computing applications and describes Component based software engineering. It proposes a “Generic Component” model with ‘Component Generator’ that generates pervasive computing application-based components.

Security and privacy provision is one of the major focuses of Pervasive service providers, applications developer and the users. It is worth discussing various security mechanisms in Pervasive networks including Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) and wireless sensor networks, which use different protocols and algorithms, and ensure integrity of data, access control and authentication. Cryptographic algorithms, that require secret key, are used in transmitting information safely. This book covers the explanation of the key management service and key establishment schemes in the context of pervasive computing environment. It contains the explanations on the processes including key generation, key distribution to each user, key installation at each user’s end, key usage control, key updating process, revoking the old key and destroying the old key.

Pervasive computing applications involve sensors, controls, adaptive software, portable hardware and networks, and are facing increasing number of security attacks aimed at some or all of the components of the applications these days. This book describes various security attacks in pervasive computing and identifies the need for high assurance security and defence mechanisms. It discusses the functioning of Route Falsification Attacks in MANETs and how a Secure Hybrid Routing Information Protocol (SRIP) can avoid route falsification attack. It further explains that in on-demand reactive routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks known as AODV (Ad Hoc On demand Distance Vector), there is no security provision against Black hole attack. Then it gives explanation of how the watchdog mechanism for the AODV routing protocol can be used to detect misbehavior based on promiscuous listening.

In order to obtain maximum benefit of the technologies and serve the residents, all the cities and remote areas must get completely wirelessly networked. Seamless wireless and pervasive technology enabled cities will make the lives much safer, secure and easier by capturing and delivering real-time information of the events and accidents, and directing the residents in case of emergencies. The wireless cities will benefit students, businesses, police, traffic controllers, hospitals, travelers, neighbors and other entities by keeping them informed. These projects are valuable for the cities and yet expensive and face many challenges such as user behaviors and capacity to pay, government policies and alignment of wireless city projects with their strategies, the business model for wireless city development, business innovations and their network usage plans, operational issues of the pervasive technology, lack of infrastructure for installation of pervasive equipment and sensors. This book includes the discussion on wireless city applications and explores the causes of developing a wireless city and the impact of consumer usage behavior on the development of wireless cities with diverse resource bases. It talks about the knowledge economy and knowledge super corridors, and draws various success strategies for the implementation of pervasive computing from analyses based on the structurational framework.

Seamless wireless networks and the portable mobile devices help students access the learning material in an interactive mode and benefit from the blended E-learning applications. PDAs, ipods and other little devices are being used for elearning and off campus distance learning. Students download the study material on their devices and study wherever they like and whenever they like in a given time period. Many researches are being conducted on prospects and consequences of such a use. Behavioral scientists and education specialists are taking interest in studying the change in learning behavior and positive or negative impact of this technology on different age groups. Part of interactive pervasive elearning is testing the learning outcomes. We, therefore, need to develop interactive examination Systems. This book discusses the application area Online Test Management Systems, details the features and identifies automated question selection as an emerging problem. It also proposes a technique for administering question sets in an intelligent and automated approach.

Human computer interaction is an area that has broadened its scope from fixed desktops to every day pervasive computing devices which are wireless, embedded, mobile and portable. It is important to study the impact of the human interaction with these devices and minimise the negative impact. This book includes a chapter on the significance of non-verbal behaviour on the efficient human-computer interaction and the description of hypothetical model to study the use of Neuro-Linguistic Programming and computing system as an aid to cognizance and perception of human interactions. It looks into the importance of successful modelling in making interaction between humans and the computers including robots more natural. It also discusses various uses of NLP including Psychotherapy, Interpersonal Communication Skills, Artificial intelligence, B.P.O., entertainment etc.

Tele-immersion is one of the collaborative technologies that create a simulated environment for geographically scattered group members to cooperate with each other in real-time. Many Psychotherapists and doctors are using this technology to treat an increasing number of patients suffering from mental and psychological disorders from long distances. This book explains Tele-immersive technology as an advanced method to combat these disorders and describes how its applications in psychotherapy help psychologists control and monitor their patients and their immersive treatments over long distances. The objective of pervasive computing applications is to optimize the efficiency and effectiveness of the doctors and minimize the location constraints to serve maximum number of patients. This book further explains the application of Genetic Algorithm in the mobility management model for healthcare services developed for the efficient utilization of the network infrastructure. It further uses a framework to describe the relations between types of hospitals and specialists with the use of Hospital Information Systems (HIS). It proposes a model for pervasive healthcare to manage the specialists' movements between the hospital nodes to serve the maximum number of patients in minimum amount of time.

Another primary feature of this book is its focus on pervasive education environment that can be used to enhance student learning by incorporating both formal and informal learning interactions without fixed time constraints. Pervasive simulation games can be used to make the learning environment more adaptive, reduce extensive cognitive load, and learner’s need based. Chapter 15 focuses on learning approaches in e-learning environment when class sizes and student mobility are increasing. It discusses the penetration of computer technology into different interaction points and processes of students and educational institutes especially teaching. It explains the issues of surface and deep learning and discusses how students learn to enhance learning outcomes and how to provide more satisfying learning experience to students. Chapter 16 identifies and discusses in detail the significance of teaching Ambient Intelligence (AmI) tools and methods to the students who are potential Managers or IT professionals. It describes AmI systems as having very high level of complexity. It also describes a holistic approach to Ambient Intelligence. Chapter 17 reinforces the fact that educational organizations are facing challenges of dynamic environment which requires re-engineering of the higher education that includes e-learning, blended learning, pervasive computing, and distance and open learning. It presents a framework of a new Pedagogic System that can be embedded in the Knowledge Management System, in seamless manner, through pervasive computing. Chapter 18 gives introduction of Virtual Vidyalaya that uses Pervasive computing environment for e-learning. This chapter recommends some strategies for successful, effective and efficient implementation of Virtual Vidyalaya system. Chapter 19 discusses the transition of various economies and societies from hunting and gathering economy to the information economy. It further describes various aspects of instructional design elements, learner-learner interactions, student’s perceptions, online and distance education.

Success of Pervasive computing lies in the appropriate use of theories of human psychology and behavior in development of applications. Cognitive theories on attention and memory can be used in developing advertising applications, whereas theories on intelligence, problem solving and decision-making can be used in developing BI applications. Due to high returns on investment Game industry is one of the first industries to attract application developers of pervasive technology. Children spend hours on pervasive devices to play games and if developmental theories related to parental styles, attachment theories, moral development and role playing are properly used while developing these applications, it can reduce the worry of parents to some extent. Latest researches depict that toddlers and preschool kids are spending much time on computer games and mobile phone games rather spending time on playing in grounds or listening to stories. Pervasive computing has by and large the capacity to empower parents, individuals, students, doctors, patients and society if the applications being developed are carefully designed and used.

Dr .Varuna Godara

Sydney College of Management, Australia
September 3, 2009