Analysis of the Impact of the Economic Crisis of 2008 on the Primary Level of Public Education in Guatemala, in the Period From 2002 to 2015

Analysis of the Impact of the Economic Crisis of 2008 on the Primary Level of Public Education in Guatemala, in the Period From 2002 to 2015

Sofía Jimena Roca (Universidad Del Valle de Guatemala, Guatemala)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-4981-9.ch006
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Abstract

The objective of this chapter is the analysis of the primary education in Guatemala and if the amount of investment during the period 2002–2015 is significant for the number of children promoted by school year, and if these investments were impacted by the economic crisis of 2008. The results of the investigation demonstrate that the variables with significance where the number of teachers and the budget per year, without relation to economic growth and no impact by the economic crisis on 2008 and with no significant relation with the rate of drop out, which was an important result, especially in primary school. The data analyzed also show that the budget per year for the Ministry of Education doesn't suffer an impact after the economic crisis in 2008, where the author expected to find some problem after the crisis, but that the number of teachers hired in 2009 almost doubles the amount of teachers who were hired in 2008.
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Literary Review

In Guatemala, free and mandatory primary education was instituted on January 2, of 1875 through the decree 130 that contained the Organic Law of Primary Public Instruction (González Orellana, 2007). This decree defined that: “Education shall not be limited to instruction, but will comprehend the development of all the faculties of the soul and the individual's physical activities “(González Orellana, 2007).

At present, the Constitution of the Republic (1985) indicates in Article 74 that “Habitants have the right and obligation to receive the initial, pre-primary, Primary and basic, within the age limits set by law. The education provided by The State is free. “So the primary education is 100% state responsibility by law. Then, what we understand by education? Education is a process 1 that have as target “modify [to the human] to complete it and optimize it, taking as reference an ideal model of person and society “(Luengo Navas, 2004). The importance of education focuses on the ability to change the humans and the direct impact on the formation of a society.

The entity in charge of designing, organizing and carrying out educational processes in Guatemala is the Ministry of Education (MINEDUC) and is based on the objectives defined in the National Curriculum Base (CNB). The CNB is the educational project of the Guatemala Government for the integral development of the human person, guatemalans and the plural nation (CNB). This is designed with for “Promoting a solid technical, scientific and humanistic formation as fundamental base for personal fulfillment, performance in productive work, the development of each person and national development” (Dirección de General de Gestión de Calidad Educativa).

The CNB indicates from the primary level that “It is expected that upon leaving the primary level, the students are able to communicate in two or more languages, use the thought logical, reflexive, critical and creative, in the construction of knowledge, technology and the arts and sciences of other cultures; contribute to the sustainable development of nature, societies and cultures of the country and the world; know about hygiene and individual and collective health, promote the improvement of the quality of life, act with security, freedom, accountability and honesty, to practice and promote values, democracy, culture of peace and respect for human rights. Also, that they respect, promote and value the art, culture and worldview of the Peoples. “(MINEDUC)

The CNB establishes its bases in competences, defined as “the capacity or disposition that has developed a person to face and solve problems of daily life and to generate new knowledge “(MINEDUC). Therefore, at the primary level, the childrens has to develop the competences of: mathematics, natural sciences and technology, social sciences, natural and social medium, artistic expression, physical education, citizen training and productivity and development.

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