Antibiotic Resistance in the Veterinary Perspective: A Major Challenge in Achieving One Health

Antibiotic Resistance in the Veterinary Perspective: A Major Challenge in Achieving One Health

Sophia Inbaraj (Indian Veterinary Research Institute, India), Vamshi Krishna Sriram (College of Veterinary Science, India), Prasad Thomas (Indian Veterinary Research Institute, India), Abhishek Verma (Indian Veterinary Research Institute, India) and Pallab Chaudhuri (Indian Veterinary Research Institute, India)
Copyright: © 2019 |Pages: 16
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-6304-4.ch006

Abstract

Antibiotic resistance is an emerging threat to achieving one health all over the globe. The phenomenon leads to the emergence of drug-resistant microbes previously susceptible to an antibiotic. Drug-resistant microbes are the major reasons for medical complications like patient mortality and treatment failure. Unregulated use of antibiotics in animal husbandry is one of the major reasons for the emergence of antibiotic resistance. The resistance enters the human population mainly through the food chain. The genetic markers associated with drug resistance spread among different bacterial species by horizontal gene transfer mechanisms. Therefore, regulation of antibiotics use in animal husbandry and proper safety measures at farm level are necessary to check drug-resistant microbes entering the food chain. This chapter discusses the antibiotics, antibiotic resistance, genetic mechanisms involved, the spread of resistance, and also the available strategies to combat antimicrobial drug resistance.
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Antibiotics And Their Classification

Antibiotics are compounds derived from micro-organisms which can selectively inhibit or kill other microbes. Antibiotics can be classified based on their chemical nature and mode of action. Based on the mechanism of action, antibiotics can be classified as (i) inhibitors of cell wall synthesis (ii) inhibitors of protein synthesis (iii) inhibitors of DNA synthesis (iv) inhibitors of various metabolic pathways of bacteria (Levy & Marshall, 2004). The common classification of antibiotics based on chemical nature includes Beta-lactams, Macrolides, Tetracyclines, Quinolones, Aminoglycosides, Sulphonamides, Glycopeptides and Oxazolidinones (Etebu & Arikekpar, 2016).

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