Autophagic Dysfunction in Neurodegeneration: Pathogenic Cellular and Molecular Mechanistic Approaches

Autophagic Dysfunction in Neurodegeneration: Pathogenic Cellular and Molecular Mechanistic Approaches

Meenakshi Kaira (Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, India), Abhilasha Ahlawat (Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, India), Vaibhav Walia (Faculty of Pharmacy, DIT University, Dehradun, India) and Munish Garg (Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, India)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 38
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1317-0.ch002

Abstract

Autophagy is a normal physiological process characterized by the degradation of complex cellular contents into a simpler one and reutilized them in biosynthetic pathways. Lysosomes are the cell organelle that participates in the process of autophagy. The brain is the most vulnerable organ in most lysosome disorders because neurons are inefficient in removing impaired organelles and waste materials. In the brain, autophagy suppresses the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins that results in further damage to the neurons responsible for neurodegeneration. Autophagy mediates protective effects in age-related diseases. In the chapter, the authors describe the process of autophagy, the mechanism involved, and the implication of the autophagic pathways in the various neurodegenerative disorders.
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Types Of Autophagy

In the case of mammalian cells, there are mainly three types of autophagy. These are microautophagy, macroautophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA).

Macroautophagy

Macroautophagy includes a series of steps i.e., membrane initiation, nucleation, elongation, autophagosome maturation and lysosomal fusion (Nakatogawa et al., 2009).

Microautophagy

It involves a process of membrane invagination or deformation to engulf cytoplasmic contents into the lysosome by forming a vesicle (Marzella et al., 1981) and thus also known as endosomal microautophagy (Sahu et al., 2011). Microautophagy participates in maintaining energy levels under stress conditions (Dubouloz et al., 2005).

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