Beclin 1 Complex and Neurodegenerative Disorders

Beclin 1 Complex and Neurodegenerative Disorders

Ozaifa Kareem (Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Pharmacology Division), Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India), Ghulam Nabi Bader (Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Pharmacology Division), Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India), Faheem Hyder Pottoo (Department of Pharmacology, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia), Mohd. Amir (College of Clinical Pharmacy, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia), Md. Abul Barkat (Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Hafr Al-Batin, Al Jamiah, Hafr Al-Batin, Saudi Arabia) and Mukesh Pandey (Department of Pharmaceutics, Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, India)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 25
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1317-0.ch009

Abstract

Beclin1 is the mammalian orthologue of yeast Atg6/vacuolar protein sorting-30 (VPS30). Beclin1 interacts with various biological macromolecules like ATG14, BIF-1, NRBF2, RUBICON, UVRAG, AMBRA1, HMGB1, PINK1, and PARKIN. Such interactions promote Beclin1-PI3KC3 complex formation. Autophagy is blocked in apoptosis owing to the breakdown of Beclin1 by caspase whereas autophagy induction inhibits effector caspase degradation, therefore, blocks apoptosis. Thus, the Beclin1 is an essential biomolecular species for cross-regulation between autophagy and apoptosis. Various studies carried out in neurodegenerative animal models associated with aggregated proteins have confirmed that multifunctional Beclin1 protein is necessary for neuronal integrity. The role of Beclin1 protein has been investigated and was reported in various human neurodegeneration disorders. This chapter aims to provide an insight into the role of Beclin1 in the development of neurodegenerative disorders.
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Molecular Mechanisms Of Autophagy

Autophagy can be described as an intracellular biochemical process of catabolic nature that facilitates degradation and removal of dysfunctional proteins, damaged organelles, unutilized biological macromolecules, and invaded pathogens or foreign biological materials present within the cytoplasm of a cell through an autophagosome-lysosomal pathway. It functions as a survival mechanism against various kinds of stress such as starvation, during which unwanted cytoplasmic material is recycled and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules are synthesized and also as a defense system against pathogenic microorganisms and cellular debris (Mizushima et al., 2011) as shown in Figure 1. Based on the mechanisms utilized for transporting cargo to lysosomes, three different autophagy processes were reported in the literature (Figure 2); macroautophagy, microautophagy and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Macroautophagy also called autophagy is the basic pathway utilized by cells for degrading cytoplasmic organelles and malformed proteins (Deretic et al., 2018).

Figure 1.

Roles of autophagy in biological systems.

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Figure 2.

Different types of autophagy in mammalian cells.

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