Biomechanical Properties of Orthopedic and Dental Implants: A Comprehensive Review

Biomechanical Properties of Orthopedic and Dental Implants: A Comprehensive Review

Manjeet Kumar (Panjab University, India), Rajesh Kumar (Panjab University, India), Sandeep Kumar (Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, India) and Chander Prakash (Lovely Professional University, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-5445-5.ch001

Abstract

The demand for the orthopedic and dental implants has increased sharply in last decade due to physical traumas and age-related deficiencies. The material used for orthopedic and dental implants should be biocompatible to ensure the adaptability of the implant in the human body. The mechanical stability of implants is dependent on mechanical properties and surface characteristics essential to ensure corrosion and wear resistance. The requirement of mechanical properties also differs substantially from load-bearing to non-load-bearing implants. There are many problems arising due to lack of sufficient biocompatibility, like infection, poor osseointegration, and excessive foreign body response. Fatigue failure, stress shielding, and bone resorption are some major problems associated with lack of mechanical stability. Numerous conventional materials, coatings, and nanomaterials have been used to enhance the implant stability.
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Prerequisite Properties

Orthopedic and dental structure of living bodies is like a mechanical system imbedded in a biological environment. The biomaterial which is intended to use in implantation should have desired mechanical and biological properties. Implant’s material and design is most dominant factor which decides both the short term and the long term performance of the implant (Prakash et al.,2016). With increase in human life expectancy, the better quality and long life spanned OIs and DIs are needed (Narayan, 2012). The human body’s internal environment is very austere having an oxygenated saline solution with salt content of about 0.9% at pH 7.4 and temperature of 37°C (Saro & Sidhu, 2012). This environment accelerates the fatigue failure, corrosion and wears rates several times that cause decrements in the implant life. Corrosion and wear cause many particle borne diseases and infection that may put risk on patient’s life (Prakash et al.,2015). So, properties of material are not only important from functional point of view but also from patient’s life point of view. The implant’s material properties can be classified as mechanical properties, biological properties, and corrosion resistance as shown in figure 1. These properties are interrelated and affect each other.

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