Brain Prints for Biometrics

Brain Prints for Biometrics

Ramaswamy Palaniappan (Department of Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, UK) and Tarsem Sihra (Faculty of Arts, Computing, Engineering and Sciences, Department of Engineering and Mathematics, Sheffield Hallam University, UK)
Copyright: © 2015 |Pages: 11
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-5888-2.ch050
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Main Focus Of The Article

Newer Types of Biometrics

As mentioned, newer research has focused on alternative biometrics such as those based on gait (Matovski et al., 2012), face features (Kelkboom et al., 2007), palmprint and hand geometry (Kumar et al., 2003), retina (Jeffers et al., 2012), iris (Melin, 2012) and voice (Gupta & Chatterjee, 2012). The second trend is to use signals from brain (Palaniappan, 2006) and heart (Palaniappan and Krishnan, 2004) as biometrics. Such signals from the brain and heart are commonly employed for medical diagnosis but the advantage of using such biological signal based biometrics compared to other biometrics is its distinctiveness, i.e. they are difficult to be duplicated by someone else, therefore not easily forged or stolen. The data collection can be cumbersome though the future improvements will reduce the unwieldiness and the distinctiveness could outweigh the difficulties especially for high security applications. This article will focus on the use of patterns from the brain for both authentication and identification.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Electroencephalogram (EEG): A measurement of the electrical activity of the brain in microVolts recorded from electrodes placed on the scalp.

Visual Evoked Potential (VEP): Similar to AEP but evoked upon the presentation of a visual stimulus.

Delta, Theta, Alpha, Beta, Gamma: Some commonly used spectral bands in EEG.

Biometrics: A field of study that attempts to verify or identify human beings using their intrinsic physical or behavioural traits.

Client: The actual user claiming the identity.

Auditory Evoked Potential (AEP): A type of EEG that is evoked upon the presentation of an auditory (sound) stimulus.

Impostors: User trying to forge another person’s identity.

False Reject Error (FRE): It is the error made by the system when it wrongly rejects the clients as impostors.

False Accept Error (FAE): One of the two types of errors used in authentication. It is the error made by the system when it wrongly accepts impostors as clients.

Identification: A procedure to identify a user’s identity from a pool of users.

Authentication or Verification: A procedure to verify or authenticate a user based on the claims of the user.

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