Closing the Gender Gap in Human Capital Formation for the Fourth Industrial Revolution

Closing the Gender Gap in Human Capital Formation for the Fourth Industrial Revolution

Tinuke Fapohunda (Department of Industrial Relations and Human Resources Management, Lagos State University, Ojo, Nigeria)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 28
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-9810-7.ch008
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Disparities in gender calculations in several nations have originated turbulence in multinational platforms in the recent past. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals list gender equality and women empowerment as the fifth of the eight goals. This study scrutinizes the gender gaps in human capital formation. It demonstrated the economic cost of gender inequality in human capital formation (losses in human capital attributable to gender inequality are estimated at $160.2 trillion) and considered some clear-cut involvements that can ease the realization of greater equality. To boost women's human capital formation, investments throughout the life cycle are obligatory. Successful involvements can be affected to tackle time use restrictions, support access to productive assets, and resolve market and institutional disappointments that reprimand women. Spending on girls and women is indispensable not only to boosting gender equality and the changing wealth of nations but also allowing nations to grow in maintainable manners.
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World Bank (2016) reports that globally, studies indicate that gender inequality has a tendency to dawdle economic development and further compound, the ascension from poverty. A nation’s economy is jeopardized if the female half of its populace is without equal access to the economic contribution process. The economic price of gender gaps is high, because besides reducing the women’s wellbeing, it also diminishes that of males and children and ultimately obstructs economic development. Blackden et al. (2016) developed a model where gender inequality has an adverse effect on asset accrual and factor productivity and affects economic development. Eliminating extremely qualified girls from the educational process, consequences in a decline in the broad typical quantity of human capital. Besides, limiting female education originates a decline in the human capital of the next generation because women’s educational accomplishment has a tendency to considerably reduce child mortality and fertility. Studies on the causative influence of gender gaps on economic growth like King, Klasen, and Porter (2008) and World Bank (2016) indicate a significant negative effect of gender disparity on economic growth. The negative signs are attributable to an enormous gender gap in education, which could be regarded as a substitute for backwardness. The largest component of a country’s wealth typically resides in her people. Singer (2018) affirms that worldwide, women comprise merely 38 percent of human capital wealth as against 62 percent for men. Two key dynamics cause women to have reduced incomes and poorer human capital wealth in contrast to men: inferior labour force participation rates and fewer hours worked in the labour market, and lesser pay. Owing partly to social norms consigning women to unpaid care and informal occupation, these dynamics keep many women in productivity ensnare. Lifelong investments are obliged to guarantee that both women and men gain equivalent access to openings and supplies and to increase women’s earnings and human capital formation.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Human Capital: The stock of knowledge, skills abilities and attributes to perform to produce economic value.

Human Capital Formation: Transforming a country’s citizens to workers with the capacity to efficiently produce goods and render services.

Women Empowerment: Women taking control over their lives; setting their own agenda, gaining skills, increasing self-confidence, solving problems, and developing self-reliance.

Sustainable Development: Development that is pro-poor, pro nature, pro jobs, pro-women, pro-men, and pro-children.

Gender Gap: The gap between men and women in education, health, politics, and economics, etc.

Gender Equality: Involves treating everyone identically in terms of access to and control over resources and opportunities.

Occupational Segregation: Distribution of workers across and in occupations founded on demographic features like gender.

Economic Development: The process a nation employs in improving then economic, political, and social wellbeing of its people.

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