Cloud-Based IoT Architecture in Green Buildings

Cloud-Based IoT Architecture in Green Buildings

Abhinav Singh (Netaji Subhas University of Technology, India), Utsha Sinha (Netaji Subhas University of Technology, India) and Deepak Kumar Sharma (Netaji Subhas University of Technology, India)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 20
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-9754-4.ch008
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The development and expansion of mankind in addition to the advancement of technology have a substantial impact on the environment. The construction, design, and operation of buildings account for a large consumption of natural resources. Due to the exploitation of natural resources on a large scale through these buildings, it has become necessary to have a better-designed building for the efficient use of resources. The concept of “green building” solves the aforementioned issues apart from promoting eco-friendly activities. IoT makes the idea of having buildings that are energy sufficient possible through networked sensors that not only help in managing the assets better but also reducing harmful impacts on human health and the environment. This chapter talks about the concept of the green building and the smart automation achieved through IoT as well as cloud architecture for the green building also referred to as green cloud. While it explains the basic cloud architecture in green building, it also proposes future challenges for the aforementioned subject.
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With the growth of demand for internet data and high-speed network in the current world scenario, there is a need for large-scale data storage providers which is being met by the high-processing data center’s which in turn consists of a large number of servers along with organized and structured facilities. Various multi-national organizations such as Amazon, eBay, Google and Yahoo run these enormous data center’s throughout the world. Numerous business enterprises traditionally invested an immense amount of resources and capital in making such massive data center’s for data storage (Kumar & Buyya, 2012). With the advancement in technology and the formation of the network in IoT, there is a desperate need to store all the data in an efficient manner and process it optimally. Cloud computing is an ideal architecture for data hosting, computing and storage infrastructure which eventually makes it cost-effective. The highly scalable, dynamic field of ICTs can be converted into green cloud computing by working to improve energy efficiency and reducing carbon emissions and electronic waste.

The history of cloud computing traces back its roots from the 1960s (Mohamed, 2018). However, the aforementioned term became popular worldwide in recent years due to its ability to overcome the drawbacks of data center’s such as high-maintenance cost, proximity challenges, huge infrastructure expenditures, etc. Even though various business corporations are migrating from data center services to cloud computing for its ease of use but there remains a considerable amount of companies that still prefers the traditional data center services. The advancement in the technologies has in various cases led both producers as well as the users to neglect the environmental issues (Radu, 2017). For instance, there are about 44 million servers incorporated in various data center’s that consume about 0.5 percent of all the electricity (Forrest, Kaplan, & Kindler, 2008). It is interesting to note that the data center’s or server farms alone stood for 14% of the global CO2 emission (Uddin, Abdul Rahman, & Memon, 2011). Considering the aforementioned harmful effects of technology, it is, therefore, the need of the hour to use green technologies. Green technology is defined as the technology which can perform the same functions as any other technology, but is energy efficient while executing its task. While taking into the account, the increase in energy consumption it can be inferred that Information Communication Technology or ICT is largely accountable for it. This expansion of the mobile phone network and ICT services lead to an increase in energy consumption. Since the internet has become a large part of the humankind, cloud computing has surfaced a useful tool to keep up with the rising demand for data storage. Since cloud computing emerged around the world, it becomes a necessity to come up with green computing (Prashant, 2017). The idea of the green building goes along with the need of the hour that is low power consumption and being environment-friendly.

This chapter focuses on cloud computing architecture via IoT in green buildings. The remaining chapter is structured as- Section 1 explains the three main concepts of the chapter, i.e. green building, IoT devices, and green cloud computing. In section 2, the smart automation in green building and methods to minimize energy consumptions are discussed. Section 3 & 4 covers the IoT architecture in green buildings and the basics of green cloud computing. Finally, the last section i.e. section 5 explains the green cloud architecture in green building.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Quality of Service (QoS): It provides a suitable environment for the data traffic over the network and controls the network resources. It expedites the data transfer and exchange of packets and reduces the packet loss.

Pay-as-You-Go Service: It is a type of service in which the payment takes place only when you use the service and till the time it is being used. So, the money is not paid on an advanced basis and hence saves a lot of capital.

Sustainable Development: It is economic development through which the system is sustained for the future and at the same time it does not depletes the natural resources or nature.

Microcontroller Unit (MCU): It is a small integrated circuit which is designed to perform a certain specific task installed in a system. It consists of a processor, memory and input/output.

Green House Data: It is a data center service provides and its headquarters is based in Wyoming, United States. It offers various services such as IaaS, colocation, and VMware cloud hosting.

Key performance indicator (KPI): It is a quantity which can be measured, and it is used to analyze an organization based on its key objectives and it is also used to evaluate a company's performance.

Green Broker: It is the link between the green cloud architecture and the User. It facilitates the user request and provides the most suitable green cloud provider to the user according to its requirements.

Virtual Machine Manager: It is a software which controls resources of virtual machines and provides services to the cloud. It is also called VMM or hypervisor.

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