Consumer Intention to Use QR Code

Consumer Intention to Use QR Code

Tze Yien Chen (Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia), Wei Shen Ng (Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia), Wei Ling Tan (Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia), Yan Ying Tan (Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia), Pui Yee Lee (Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia), Chee Peen H'ng (Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia) and Ji Wen Luo (Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0746-8.ch013
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Abstract

This study examines how the users' perception of QR code affects their attitude towards QR code, particularly in the context of Malaysian local university students. Next, the study examines the relationship between their attitude towards QR code and their intention to use the QR code. Empirical analysis via multiple regression analysis affirmed that PIQ influences PU and PSQ influences PEoU. Additionally, both PU and PEoU influences the attitude of users, which leads to the influence of attitude towards the user's intention to use to QR code. The functionality of QR codes can be utilized by business entities to serve for their company and create revenue. However, the companies must modify the content of the QR code application according to the minimum requirements and perception of the users. The results of this research offer essential guidelines for companies to tailor the information of their campaigns to the users' preferences. Next, future researches can utilize the proposed theoretical framework to exploit the potentials of QR code in the marketing field.
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Introduction

A QR code (Quick Response Code) is a machine-readable 2D bar code consisting of an array of black and white squares. It is used to provide a quick and easy access to information through a smart phone. The QR code was created in 1994 by one of Toyota’s subsidiary, Denso Wave. The QR code was designed in a way that its contents can be decoded quickly (Jupiter, 2011). Since then, the QR code became one of the most popular 2D bar code in the world. Smart phone users can easily scan the QR codes using the camera on their mobile phone with the help of a built-in bar code reading software. Then, the encoded information provided by QR code is processed and decoded to be read by the users. Since the QR code scanner applications can be easily downloaded on almost every smart phone (Louho, Oittinen, & Kallioja, 2006), QR codes are widely seen on posters and billboards, and became an important addition to current marketing techniques (Pitney Bowes Inc., 2012).

In a survey on QR code adoption trends among young adults in the United States, United Kingdom, France and Germany, Pitney Bowes Inc. (2012) reported that the average users of QR codes (27 percent) were young adults between the age of 18 to 34 years old. Previous MobiLens press release by Comscore (2012) revealed that European smart phone users who scanned the QR code had doubled over the past year with additional report that the Germans were the most avid QR code users, meanwhile Spain was ranked the fastest growing market. Aiming to take full advantage of the rising trend, SnapChat daringly invested nearly $51 Million in utilizing the QR code technology (Price, 2015).

QR codes play an important role in spreading and gaining information for the Gen Y, as it has high functionality and easy to use. QR codes can actually boost up traffic to websites when placed in a convenient location, such as on signboards, on busses or business cards. It has a versatility to be used in many ways. For example, to engage the customers, drive traffic to the desired website and build a business. Customers can scan the codes and obtain a direct link to the business website for instant information while businesses saved advertising printing costs. Even simple advertising which uses magazines can link customers to websites (Dreyer, 2011). Next, QR code acts as a bridge to connect different forms of marketing from all streams together. For example, e-commerce and mobile commerce used QR codes. The QR codes act as the link and exposes customers to other forms of advertising the business. Other than that, QR codes potentially creates more opportunities to generate revenue for businesses, maximizes their exposure to the public, build a customer base and create recurring customers.

With the correct marketing strategy, QR code can become a beneficial marketing platform. For instance, Toyota executed a campaign in printed ads and they received a positive response from the public (Moth, 2012). The QR code was printed on the corner of the ads at a viewable size and was easy to scan. While many businesses are racing to gather the competitive benefits from QR code technology, some businesses faced monetary loss due to unsuccessful campaigns. A Gilette’s advertisement which featured Kate Upton promoting a new shaver while thinking of a QR code was catchy, but it was degraded due to its poorly executed advertising (Stampler, 2013). Therefore, the implementation of QR code in an advertisement must not be taken lightly. Considering the factors that will affect the effectiveness of a QR code, the principal determining factors for QR code usage must be identified. Basically, the data and the results of this exploration would contribute to the education field as well as the business industries.

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