Copyright Protection of Audio Using Biometrics

Copyright Protection of Audio Using Biometrics

Muhammad Yaasir Khodabacchus (University of Mauritius, Mauritius)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-3822-6.ch044
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Abstract

In our global community, the Internet, the issue of copyright is increasing. The International Maritime Bureau (IMB) reported over thousands of incidents this year compared to three hundred only ten years ago. Although laws and other ways have been intended to protect the rights of content developers and describe restrictions that can be placed on copying materials, pirate users always find a way to breach the protection. Base on this fact, a new method has been implemented using biometrics as it is described in the following chapters. This paper was developed taking into consideration one of the most widely used biometrics which is the fingerprint. Precisely, the aim of the system includes embedding the fingerprint into an audio file which can only be read using the fingerprint of the registered user.
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Introduction

In today’s information technology era, a pirate user is offered a plethora of opportunities to make illegal copyrights with the use of digital techniques in the creation, editing and distribution of multimedia data. Furthermore, the widespread usage of Internet is providing additional channels for a pirate to quickly and easily distribute the copyrighted digital content without the fear of being tracked. As a result, the protection of multimedia content is now receiving a substantial amount of attention. In recent years solutions such as steganography and encryption were found, but due to some problems, pirate users have been able bypass the security provided by these techniques.

Biometrics is an alternative solution to eliminate copyright problem. The field of biometrics has been able to prove effective in various fields such as protection of sensitive data at the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Central Intelligence Agency and also in biometric passports to authenticate the identity of travellers.

The ability to relate biometric to multimedia can enhance the trustworthiness of a system. In this paper, biometrics will be combined with existing protection technique such as steganography to alleviate the problem of copyright.

Biometrics Overview

The word biometrics is derived from the Greek words bios (meaning life) and metron (meaning measurement), so biometrics is in essence, the measure of life (Lim Dong, 2010). As the level of security breaches and fraud increases, the need for highly secure identification and personal verification technologies is becoming apparent

Biometrics System

Figure 1.

Biometrics Architecture (Jain et al, 2009)

Source: Jain et al. 2009

For any biometric system the most important aspect for it to work properly is that the individual must first be enrolled. Furthermore in designing a practical biometric system is to determine how an individual is going to be recognised. Depending on the application, a biometric system may be called either a verification system or an identification system:

  • Enrolment: User enrolment is a process that is responsible for registering individuals in the biometric system storage. During the enrolment process, the biometric characteristic of a subject is first captured by a biometric scanner to produce a sample. A quality check is often performed to ensure that the acquired sample can be reliably processed by successive stages. A feature extraction module is then used to produce a feature set. The feature set is then used to produce an enrolment template. The enrolment template is stored in the system storage together with the demographic information about the user.

  • Verification: The verification process is responsible for confirming the claim of identity of the subject. During the recognition phase, an identifier of the subject is provided to claim an identity. The biometric scanner captures the characteristic of the subject and converts it to a sample, which is further processed by the feature extraction module to produce a feature set. The resulting feature set is fed to the matcher, where it is compared against the enrolment template of that subject. A match/non-match decision is produced by the verification process.

  • Identification: In the identification process, the subject does not explicitly claim an identity. The system is set to compare the feature set against the templates of all the subjects in the system storage. The output is a candidate list that may be empty or contain one identifier of matching enrolment templates.

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