Critical Review of Academic Entrepreneurship in India

Critical Review of Academic Entrepreneurship in India

Neeta Baporikar (Ministry of Higher Education CAS-Salalah, Sultanate of Oman)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-2116-9.ch002
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Abstract

Academic Entrepreneurship in the last three decades has risen to greater heights. There are various reasons, too. India’s education sector has been undergoing sea changes in these decades. Every state has been opening up, and there has been a plethora of institutions established. In the process, India has earned itself a reputation of a brainpower generator. Academic entrepreneurship in India has played a seminal role in accomplishing this status. The chapter aims to provide a critical review of academic entrepreneurship in India. It will give an analysis between different entrepreneurs, demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of education policy based on observations, bring out the factors that have key impact on the growth of academic entrepreneurship, their performance, as well as the best practices are discussed to pave way in understanding the academic entrepreneurship, which is of both theoretical and practical importance for both developed and developing countries.
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Introduction

Over the past thirty years, there has been an increasing interest toward academic entrepreneurship, i.e. the direct approach towards commercializing education or involvement of academicians and scientists into the development and commercialization of knowledge, research in fact education has become a playfield for entrepreneurs. Academic entrepreneurship takes several forms: starting institutions as enterprises, industry-university collaborations, university-based incubator firms, start-ups by academicians, double appointments of faculty in firms and universities, etc. Though the term academic entrepreneurship is used to indicate different cases, in this chapter it means and deals with individuals and institutions that have entered the field of academics with an entrepreneurial perspective. However, need based the terms “Entrepreneur,” “Scientist,” “Researcher” and “Inventor” have been used interchangeably in this chapter.

This chapter intends to:

  • Provide an understanding and perspective of academic entrepreneurship.

  • Critically review of academic entrepreneurship in India.

  • Identify the factors which impact the growth and development of academic entrepreneurs.

  • Identify the key success factors of academic entrepreneurs.

In this chapter, I make a distinction between 'Entrepreneur' and 'Academic Entrepreneur' since I believe that the academic entrepreneurship can be developed only by better adaptation to the local requirements. The chapter focuses on understanding the importance of academic entrepreneurship - how it can be developed and enhanced through right inputs and adaptation. It raises a number of questions: what is a right perspective for academic entrepreneurship and how should it be developed? What role can government play? How academic resources and capabilities should be configured to develop the right quality of academic entrepreneurship and enterprises. The goal of these questions is to provide the reader with a suitable analysis platform for decision-making. It also aims to ensure growth and success for academic entrepreneurs through optimization of knowledge management process.

Background

Education in India dates back to times unknown and has a rich heritage. The foundation for the formal system of education was laid by the arrival of the British in India. During the recent past, Indian economy has progressed, fuelled mainly by the cheap labour available in the country and inexpensive low end manufacturing. But the situation is changing and India has come to realize that its economic future lies in a better educated workforce which makes higher education its key to development. Post independence, India has laid a lot of emphasis on education and has developed some comprehensive policies to improve the educational system in the country. The main policies include:

  • National Policy on Education, 1968

  • National Policy on Education, 1986

  • National Policy on Education, 1986, as modified in 1992

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