Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs)

Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs)

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-7312-0.ch001
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Cyber is an integration of computation, communication, and control systems. Physical means natural and human-made systems that are managed and governed by the physics regulations and functioning in constant time. In Cyber Physical Systems, the cyber and physical systems are those firmly incorporated at all stages and dimensions. Starting in late 2006, the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and other United State federal agencies sponsored several workshops on CPSs. In 2007, the NSF identified CPSs as a key area of research. CPS uses embedded computers and networks to compute, communicate, and organize physical actions. Simultaneously, a CPS receives feedback on how physical events impact computations and vice versa. Through the Internet and how people communicate with each other, CPSs will change the way people interrelate with the world around them. This chapter explores CPSs.
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Cyber Physical Systems gives a new dimension of correlating present systems with the humans. And also shows how these systems combine computations and physical actions. These processes communicate with the physical world with the latest approaches. As in Figure 1 CPS has the facility to interrelate physical resources with the help of organization, estimation, and transmission. It is a main factor for improving future technologies (Baheti & Gill, 2011).

Figure 1.

CPS communication


Basically CPS means observing the physical behaviour actions and performing some processes to alter its behavior. This is to construct a physical system which should function appropriately in an enhanced way. In other words the physical action is observed by the cyber system. In turn this system is associated with various small devices having wireless communication recourses, sensing capability and computing ability. In the physical environment the actions are managed by natural happening, a human-made physical system or a more complex combination of the two which is depicted in the Figure 2 as in (Shi, Wan, Yan, & Suo,2011).

Figure 2.

CPS architecture


More than years, researchers in the fields of systems and control, have established a way to the progress of authoritative system with science and engineering processes and equipments such as (Baheti & Gill, 2011):

  • Methods in frequency and time domains,

  • State space analysis,

  • Classification of a system,

  • Optimization,

  • Estimation,

  • Filtering, and

  • Management of Robust and Stochastic.

At the same time, computer science researchers have made breakthrough in new programming languages, real-time computing techniques, visualization methods, compiler designs, embedded systems architectures and systems software by new methods to have secured reliable computer system, cyber security and fault tolerance.

CPSs incorporate physical action dynamics with the transmission and software. This incorporated system provides concepts and modeling along with the proposed and exploration techniques. CPSs research aims to integrate information and developed regulations with the engineering and estimated regulations such as supervise, code, individual communication, theory of learning, networks as well as electrical, biomedical, mechanical (Baheti & Gill, 2011) and other developed regulations to create novel CPS science with the supporting approaches. In many industries, various engineering systems have been designed by decoupling the control system design from the specified hardware or software details. To do so, it necessitates extensive simulation to verify and require ad hoc tuning methods to address modeling uncertainty and random disturbances. While keeping the system functional and operational, the combination of various subsystems has been time consuming and more cost effective.

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