Examining Teacher Candidates' Evolution of Teaching Belief

Examining Teacher Candidates' Evolution of Teaching Belief

Shikun Li (Nanjing Normal University, China)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-5268-1.ch015

Abstract

By using video feedback as a treatment, this quasi-experimental study is aimed to capture the dynamic evolution process of teacher candidates' belief of comprehensible input. It compares the changes in teacher candidates' belief of comprehensible input among different feedback groups. A mixed method, which contains the pre and post surveys, semi-structured interviews, and micro-teaching assignments decoding, is used to boost the internal validity of the research design. An ANCOVA analysis was conducted through controlling different co-variances. The results suggest that after the treatment there is no statistically significant difference in teacher candidates' post-treatment belief of comprehensible input. This result is aligned with the patterns that were generalized from semi-structured interviews: 1) a lack of changes in the teacher candidates' belief of comprehensible input after receiving feedback, 2) an alignment between the teacher candidates' micro-teaching performances and their belief of comprehensible input, and (3) the teacher candidates' positive perceptions of the video feedback.
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Introduction

Social-cultural theorists propose that the human mind is mediated via employment of different types of social-culturally constructed artifacts (Villamil & de Guerrero, 2006). With the aid of such artifacts, human beings not only are able to regularize one’s mental activity, but also are able to change the physical world in a corresponding manner. Feedback is one of the most commonly perceived mediating artifacts.

Traditionally instructors use feedback to correct teacher candidates’ performances, to applaud effective work as well as to indicate any weakness of teacher candidates’ learning process. The feedback content does not always represent individual theory (Ferris, 2002). Rather, it is an integration of instructors’ comments, theoretical background, content area knowledge, and other learning domains (Ferris, 2003).

Studies on feedback are usually concentrated on how feedback assists learners to develop certain language skills (e.g. writing, oral English). Few studies have been conducted to evaluate the role of feedback in teacher education. In fact, within teacher education programs, feedback has a significant impact on building connections between theoretical learning and teaching practices. For example, Kurtoglu-Hooton (2015) stated in his research that confirmatory feedback was crucial in promoting teacher candidates’ learning, motivating teacher candidates to try alternative teaching strategies, and boosting their confidence.

This study included two types of video feedback techniques, simultaneous video feedback and selfie feedback, to comment on teacher candidates’ micro-teaching assignments. All micro-teaching performances were recorded and uploaded to YouTube as unlisted videos. Studies have demonstrated that video-recorded teaching presentations permit participants to analyze, evaluate, and improve their own teaching performance through self-reflection or peer feedback (Wu & Kao, 2008). Traditionally, teacher candidates only receive e-feedback for their micro-teaching assignments.

In contrast, video feedback represents a revolutionary mean of connecting instructors and students. Studies have specified that pictures, audio, or even short videos can be embedded in video feedback (Brick & Holmes, 2008; Crook, Mauchline, Maw, Lawson, Drinkwater & Lundqvist Park, 2012). In this way, instructors have more flexibility to elaborate on their comments and to engage students. According to Séror (2012), “the flexibility of personalization addresses students’ attention greatly and assisted in creating a more authentic sense of audience” (p.113).

Additionally, this flexibility applies to both time and content. Crook and his colleagues stated that, “the video feedback was more extensive, informative, the key points were better emphasized and it aided their visualization of the task through demonstration and/or diagrams” (Crook, et. al, 2012, p. 389).

Furthermore, this study also sought to employ video feedback to examine the evolution of teacher candidates’ teaching beliefs. The study investigated interactions between feedback, teaching beliefs. Specifically, it compared video feedback and e-feedback in terms of their capacity to contribute to the evolution of teacher candidates’ teaching beliefs on comprehensible input.

Key Terms in this Chapter

SIOP Model: Shelter Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) was a teaching model which displayed the best practice of working with English language learners in the classroom.

Teaching Belief or Teachers’ Belief: As Pajares (1992) stated providing a concrete definition of teachers’ beliefs was very challenging. In this research, teaching belief or teachers’ belief is defined as “psychological understandings, premises, or propositions about processes, variables, and actors that are central to learning and instructional settings” (Valcke, Sang, Rots, & Herman, p. 622).

Video Feedback: An innovative way of providing feedback. Instructor recorded their comments and feedback in the video and upload it to YouTube as unlisted video. Therefore, instead of reading, learners were able to watch the feedback online or via cell phone.

Micro-Teaching: Micro-teaching is a commonly employed approach that allows teacher candidate to implement their pedagogical knowledge in practice. This study’s microteaching assignment required teacher candidates to practice implementing comprehensible input during a lecture. Teacher candidates did not need to execute the actual activity. Rather, they presented the steps necessary to move the “imaginary” students into an activity.

Comprehensible Input: The concept of comprehensible input originated from Krashen’s (1985) monitor model. According to Krashen, language acquisition happens when classroom input is slightly beyond students’ comprehension level. He proposed the formula “i+1” to further explain the teaching strategies behind this theory. While this study employed the term, “comprehensible input,” the researcher expanded its definition, and it here refers to a series of teaching strategies that increase English language learners’ comprehension of content knowledge.

Simultaneous Video Feedback (SiVF): Simultaneous video feedback displayed the instructor, with the student’s performance visible in the background.

Selfie Video Feedback (SeVF): Selfie video feedback depicted the instructor providing comments on the students’ teaching performances within the micro-teaching assignments.

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