Global Warming and Climate Change: Challenges and Impacts

Global Warming and Climate Change: Challenges and Impacts

Copyright: © 2018 |Pages: 25
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-3379-5.ch004
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This chapter indicates the advanced issues of global warming, the significant aspects of climate change, climate change and crop production, climate change and risk issues, and the public perceptions of climate change. Global warming and climate change are the important environmental concerns that have a major impact on various environmental perspectives. The effects and impacts of global warming are climate change, sea level change, water balance, and human health. The problems of global warming and climate change can be controlled by minimizing the emission of greenhouse gases into the environment through conducting laws, reducing thermal power generating stations, planting trees, and sharing vehicles. Global warming and climate change must be recognized by local governments and environment-related international organizations in order to find the effective approaches to reducing their impacts in environmental settings.
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Global warming, which is caused by the combustion of fossil fuels as the exhaustible resources (Winter, 2014) during economic development in human society (Reynolds, Bostrom, Read, & Morgan, 2010), threatens global ecological balance, imperils ecological safety, and endangers human race (Li & Wang, 2012). Emissions of greenhouse gases due to human activities (e.g., extensive use of fossil fuels and deforestations) have altered greenhouse gases in the atmosphere in ways that are expected to generate global warming and climate change (Mukherjee & Mukerjee, 2017). The analysis of ongoing global temperature change is subject to the increasing scrutiny and criticisms that are different than would occur for a purely scientific problem (Hansen, Ruedy, Sato, & Lo, 2010).

The increasing level of concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has been directly linked to the changes being experienced in the world’s climate (Bekele & Ganpat, 2017). Among the greenhouse gases, it is known that carbon dioxide (CO2) is the major contributor to global warming (Goyal & Royal, 2015). Climate change is considered as a key threat to biodiversity and ecosystem functions (Graham & Harrod, 2009), affects human societies and environment (Pappis, 2011), results in a rapid expansion of shrubs in the Arctic (Kaarlejärvi, Hoset, & Olofsson, 2015), and relates to precipitation patterns (Heino, Virkkala, & Toivonen, 2009). Companies need to engage in give-and-take exchange relationships with other companies to address climate change (Finke, Gilchrist, & Mouzas, 2016).

Investigation is required to understand climate change-related risks for all components of human systems, including cultural heritage (Forino, MacKee, & von Meding, 2016). Revisions to the design of existing mitigation measures within existing policy frameworks are considered the most effective way to account for the impacts of climate change in the future mitigation planning (Mullan, Vandaele, Boardman, Meneely, & Crossley, 2016). In order to mitigate the effects of climate change, a lot of research has reduced CO2 emissions and developed the capture and storage technologies (CCS) to reduce climate change crisis (de Richter, Ming, Caillol, & Liu, 2016), regarding the decrease in CO2 emission and the progress of alternative energy sources (Popescu & Nica, 2017). The balance between ecosystem CO2 uptake and release can determine the level of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and its potential impact on CO2 concentration in the atmosphere (Li et al., 2017).

This chapter focuses on the literature review through a thorough literature consolidation of global warming and climate change. The extensive literature of global warming and climate change provides a contribution to practitioners and researchers by indicating the challenges and impacts of global warming and climate change in order to increase the global environmental performance.

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