Inclusion: History, Models, and Why It Matters

Inclusion: History, Models, and Why It Matters

Morgan Friedman (Loyola Marymount University, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-4093-0.ch010
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Abstract

This chapter discusses the origin of inclusion, which is based in schooling children with special needs. It reviews the history, research, frameworks, and models, and what is needed to for inclusion to work. The chapter then reviews what is necessary to move inclusion beyond the classroom and into the workforce. Finally, the chapter looks at inclusion with the lens of diversity and equity, and not just for people with disabilities. One cannot discuss inclusion for all individuals without first considering how inclusion got started for people with disabilities and what makes it successful. This chapter provides an overview on inclusion of people with special needs in education in order to understand how to best include all individuals throughout their lives.
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Introduction

This chapter begins with defining inclusion and its origin within special education followed by a brief review on the research in inclusion. The difference between inclusion and mainstreaming is discussed and the chapter continues with a framework on inclusion and current inclusion models in schools. A necessity for effective inclusion is presented followed by moving inclusion beyond the classroom. Finally, the chapter will end with viewing inclusion in the lens of diversity and equity.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Co-Teaching: Two teachers, typically a general education teacher and special education teacher, working together to teach one classroom.

Inclusion: Students with disabilities being included in the general education classroom for at least some part of their day with appropriate supports.

Mainstreaming: Students with disabilities being educated in the general education classroom with no added supports.

Push-In Model of Inclusion: Students with disabilities receiving their special education services inside the general education classroom.

Disproportionality: Overrepresentation or underrepresentation of a group within a specific setting, given that group’s proportion in the total population.

Universal Design for Learning: A way of designing instruction to include all students, which involves providing multiple representations of content, multiple options for expression, and multiple options for engagement.

Pull-Out Model of Inclusion: Students with disabilities receiving their special education services outside the general education classroom.

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