International Movement of Highly Skilled Professionals

International Movement of Highly Skilled Professionals

Oleg Tolstoguzov (Russian Academy of Sciences Petrozavodsk, Russia) and Maria Pitukhina (Russian Academy of Sciences Petrozavodsk, Russia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-0111-5.ch005
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Science has become a direct productive force. Structural changes in the knowledge production world system as well as in knowledge economy geography are widely shown. Capital is slowly being shifted towards periphery, while its surplus (investment part) is transferred to other countries (where capital conditions are more attractive), thus leading to science funding increase in the countries that are already innovative leaders. Capital is always followed by intellectuals, highly skilled professionals, academic degree holders. A new type of economy development is possible due to human capital quality increase, in particular, thanks to knowledge concentration and science financing increase. In order to ensure knowledge concentration it is necessary to stimulate innovation activity, to regulate knowledge flows and brain migration, to develop the institutions that stimulate innovations and reduce agents' discrimination, to develop research schools, pursue a sustainable state innovative policy, modernize education processes. In the context of innovative economy and growing market competition both state's role and state responsibilities have strengthened.
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“Geospatial paradigm” definition has been proposed by Alaev back in 1983. At the same time, our approach is not abandoning Shumpeter’s evolutionary paradigm representing a qualitatively new technological order as a fundamental factor for global changes all over the world. We propose a geoeconomic invariant here - a system of empirically measured factors reflecting the relationship structure, relatively unchanged in both temporal and spatial dimensions of geographic objects. Our attention here focuses on spatial effects and space synergy factors’ identification.

Our study stems from economic theory, new institutional and spatial economics, strategic management together with a wide range of analytical tools application. The main research method is the systematic approach which allows geographical objects’ representation as an integrated complex system characterized by a set of economic processes (formed on knowledge and information platforms) as well as behavior patterns’ variability (as responses to geoeconomic competition). At the same time, economy is seen here as an institutionalized process.

Within the framework of a proposed approach, brain concentration characterizing science and determining economic space synergy is considered. We estimate knowledge economy mainly “at the entrance point,” similar to the approach proposed by Makarov in 2003. However, we also evaluate the intellectual potential indicators determining knowledge production nature and its direction.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Digital Economy: A digital business predominantly based on e-business and e-commerce aimed at e-goods/e-services production.

Geoeconomics: A geopolitical economy stressing state’s economic power and foreign policy goals achievement by economic means.

Publication Activity: An indicator illustrating research activity of an author or a research team embodied in a form of scientific publication.

Knowledge Economy: The highest stage in post-industrial and innovative economy development characterized by a vast information spread and knowledge society development.

Economic Space: Economic system that has a space-time dimension and is determined by institutions and economic relations between economic agents.

Geoeconomic Invariant: A system of empirically measured factors reflecting relationship structure, relatively unchanged in both temporal and spatial dimensions of geographic objects.

Information Society: A type of society where the majority of workers are engaged in information delivery, storage, processing and sale especially in its highest form –the knowledge.

Brain Migration: A movement of highly-skilled professionals involved in intellectual or creative work as well as of potential specialists such as students and trainees going abroad for more than a year.

Patent Activity: An indicator illustrating country's patent activity such as registered patents and patent applications performed both by country’s residents as well as foreign residents.

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