Internet of Things: Architecture, Challenges, and Future Directions

Internet of Things: Architecture, Challenges, and Future Directions

Mamoon Rashid (School of Computer Science and Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Jalandhar, India), Ishrat Nazeer (School of Computer Science and Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Jalandhar, India), Sachin Kumar Gupta (School of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Jammu, India) and Zeba Khanam (College of Computing and Informatics, Saudi Electronic University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 18
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-4742-7.ch005
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The internet of things (IoT) is a computing paradigm that has changed our daily livelihood and functioning. IoT focuses on the interconnection of all the sensor-based devices like smart meters, coffee machines, cell phones, etc., enabling these devices to exchange data with each other during human interactions. With easy connectivity among humans and devices, speed of data generation is getting multi-fold, increasing exponentially in volume, and is getting more complex in nature. In this chapter, the authors will outline the architecture of IoT for handling various issues and challenges in real-world problems and will cover various areas where usage of IoT is done in real applications. The authors believe that this chapter will act as a guide for researchers in IoT to create a technical revolution for future generations.
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Introduction To Internet Of Things (Iot)

Internet of Things is connectedness of various physical devices through internet for the exchange of data. Various researchers have defined Internet of Things formally in different perspectives. (Srivastava, L. 2006) have defined IoT in their research in terms of three A’s- anywhere, anytime and any media resulting into the balance between man and radio in the ratio of one: one. Internet of Things is defined by (Van Kranenburg, R., 2008) as infrastructure of global network based on interoperating protocols where the physical and virtual things are having attributes and identities with capabilities that are self-configuring in nature. Internet of Things have been defined in (Atzori, L et al. 2010) as the novel paradigm in wireless communications where the things like mobile phones, sensors, RFID’s, actuators are interacting with each other and its surroundings to achieve desired common goals. Smart Home appliance is proposed by (Prabhjot Singh et al. 2015) to monitor and control devices by integrating services of Cloud Storage Infrastructure with Internet of Things. Cloud Computing provides easy access for smart devices on remote basis and Internet of things makes normal devices as the smart ones (Aazam, 2014). The outline of IoT paradigm is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1.

Internet of Things paradigm


Elements of IoT

IOT elements can be divided into six main types as shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2.

Elements of Internet of Things



The importance of identification is growing in IoT, as more and more devices are getting added day by day and, for the successful communication purpose of the devices. Heterogeneity of platforms in IoT also makes identification an important issue. For the matching of services with their demand, identification plays a crucial role in IoT (Gubbi, 2013).


The gathering of data within the network and sending it to a data warehouse, database or cloud, is called as sensing. The data has to be collected from a wide variety of devices, made up of different platforms and architectures. As the IoT devices usually have limited data storage capabilities, sensing of useful data which is required for processing is very important. The data sensing process in IoT is always related to data storage capabilities of the IoT network. The data is analysed and based on the requirement, actions are taken (Gonzalez-Usach, 2019).

Communication technologies in IoT involve connecting objects which are heterogeneous and result into the delivery of smart services. The devices in IoT are usually from wide variety of architectures and use different technologies for communications.



In IoT, connecting wide variety of devices for smooth communication is a challenging task. IoT nodes are designed to operate on communication links which require low power (Botta, 2016).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Eavesdropping: The attack in which attacker access and redeem the communication traffic among IOT components.

Auditability: It ensures that IoT system must possess the ability to maintain a fixed watch on the system actions.

Integrity: It ensures that data is complete and accurate.

ZigBee: This IoT networking protocol allows various smart devices to work together.

Privacy: It ensures that IoT system will follow the rules and policies of privacy and allows the users to oversight the important information and data.

Trustworthiness: It ensures that IoT system must demonstrate integrity and verify the trust on the third party.

Internet of Things: A system of interconnected mechanical, digital and computing devices with Unique Identifiers that possess ability to transfer data over a network without human intervention.

Confidentiality: It ensures that only authorized person or object can have access to the data.

LaRa Wan: This is the IoT networking protocol that provides lower range of power and strength of signals below the level of noise.

Bluetooth: This protocol is often considered as the secure protocol which makes communication possible in electronic devices with low cost and energy.

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