Introduction to Tourism Security: Tourism in the Age of Terrorism

Introduction to Tourism Security: Tourism in the Age of Terrorism

Maximiliano Emanuel Korstanje (University of Palermo, Argentina)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-1054-3.ch009
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Abstract

The present essay review explores the problem of terrorism and security in tourism fields. Certainly, plans and policies provided by guide-books are not being followed in disaster-contests simply chaos and disorder are the nature of emergencies. Beyond any protocol, crises and security are not properly defined by scholars. In this essay-review, we will not pay attention to define what tourism security means, lest by the lens of three senior scholars, Sevil Somnez, Abraham Pizam and Peter Tarlow, who have accomplished this task. They have explored not only the roots of terrorism but security over 20 years. Despite the criticism, they deserve recognition for this legacy. Based on substantial point of divergence, these specialists are concerned by the financial dependency of societies respecting to mass-media and its coverage of terrorist attacks.
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Introduction

After 9/11 the problem of security concerned policy makers of tourism and hospitality industries as never before. The importance in discussing terrorism as a main threat for Western countries posed as a necessary point of agenda to strengthen the security of international tourist destination. At some extent, one of the most affected industries was tourism and hospitalities (Ryan 1993; Tarlow, 2006; Bianchi 2007; Reichel, Fuchs & Uriely 2007). The process of globalization triggered the intersection of democracy with others radical thinking in which case resentment is rechanneled by terrorists to accomplish their private-laden goals. Not only the production of terrorism-related studies triplicated after World Trade Center attacks, but also terrorism situated as a buzz-word for tourism scholars. This essay review attempts to discuss the legacy and trajectory of three senior lecturers who have focused their insight in the problem of terrorism and its effects on tourism. For Sevil Somnez, the Luxor Massacre was the cornerstone of her studies. The tragic events of 9/11 were very far from her foci. Rather, Abraham (abe) Pizam alternates diverse disciplinary methods to understand the tourist security. In this token, Rabi Peter Tarlow acknowledges that security is a matter of further complexity than terrorism. The question whether terrorism follows a religious nature is fine for Pizam and Somnez, but not for Tarlow. He goes on the opposite direction. Terrorism only gains strength according to the degree of terror it can generate. This sentiment of panic can be exploited by the imposition of violence and brutality to the extent the “Other” is objectified. At some extent, terrorists are indifferent to human suffering. Religion has nothing to do with terrorism, Tarlow adds. With strengths and weaknesses, each one gives a clear diagnosis about the role of state not only in homeland security but also in the protection of tourists. The experts agree that the success of “international terrorism” to cause political instability in western states is based on two main points. First and foremost, local economies have developed a strong dependency from tourism industry. The second point of entry in this discussion is that this dependency, conjoined to the coverage terrorism received from the media, jeopardizes the image of tourist destination cause serious losses in the periphery. Terrorist not only appeals to kill “innocent travelers” to shock western societies, these acts cause direct damage whenever the international demand declines. Though it is a conceptual chapter, its importance is given by the fact it provides readers with a fresh viewpoint of what has been written in terrorism as well as the leading voices of Pizam, Somnez and Tarlow respecting to how tourism scholars understand this deep-seated issue. It is unfortunate that marketing and management are not doing the correct thing in preventing terrorist attacks because there is some point of misunderstanding respecting to what terrorism is. The fact is that policy makers and practitioners of tourism industry would never focus on the optimization of security issues without understanding conceptually against what they struggle. The current extent literature is based on the belief “terrorists are hatred-filled maniacs who do not tolerate the liberal ideals brought by modern tourists, or the tenets of democracy which are revitalized by the industry of hospitality, in other cases, some voices claimed that terrorism exhibits an incompatibility of religious values between Christendom and Islam. In perspective, as Tarlow explains terrorism has nothing to do with religious life. Rather, oft-used tactics of terrorists remind us that extortion is their primary cultural value (Tarlow, 2014). Many of the attacks planned in Middle East against tourist targets are perpetrated by Muslims against other Muslims. One might speculate that the problem of security is not limited to terrorism alone, but today this seems to be the most urgent issue to address. During cold-war cells as ETA and JAMAS planned attacks in urban cities but selecting important chief police officers, or politicians. Nowadays, all we are the targets… innocent tourists, travelers or journalists became in targets of crueler and virulent groups which appeal to terror to captivate the attention of state. Unlike other times where attacks rattled the periphery, after 9/11 cells have been arrived to the core of most popular cities as NY, Madrid, London, Paris and now Brussels. Since terrorism has mutated to a new shape, there is an urgent necessity to update the literature.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Democracy: It signals to a form of political organization based on the rights for all the people to be involved in decision making process. Democracy varies on time and culture.

Fear: Psychological emotion or disposition whose functionality is given to the survival of organism.

Terrorism: It is a form of political violence that exerts extortion in order for their claim to be accepted.

Globalization: It derives from a process of integration culturally and economically that engaged different nations and economies worldwide.

Financial Dependency: It corresponds with a conceptual theory which underlines the intersection of central and peripheral nations. While the former develop centralized means of production to issue loans, the latter are subject to ask for them.

Security: It consists in cognitive perception of protection developed by individuals to adapt at their environments.

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