Low Loss Energy-Aware Routing Protocol for Data Gathering Applications in Wireless Sensor Network

Low Loss Energy-Aware Routing Protocol for Data Gathering Applications in Wireless Sensor Network

Basma M. Mohammad El-Basioni (Electronics Research Institute, Egypt), Sherine M. Abd El-Kader (Electronics Research Institute, Egypt), Hussein S. Eissa (Electronics Research Institute, Egypt) and Mohammed M. Zahra (Al-Azhar University, Egypt)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-0161-1.ch011
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But, as the energy-efficiency is critical for periodical data gathering applications in wireless sensor networks, it has the highest priority in algorithms design; also the latency, packet loss, and throughput are important factors and should be addressed. This chapter proposes a routing protocol inspired by an energy-efficient cluster-based routing protocol called Energy-Aware Routing Protocol (EAP). The new enhanced protocol that is called Low Loss Energy-Aware Routing Protocol (LLEAP) enhances the performance of EAP in terms of some quality of service parameters by adding a second iteration for constructing the tree structure for multi-hop communication among cluster heads, by modifying the used weights of the cluster heads and parent node selection, and finally by selecting suitable aggregation method to decrease losses and delay. Simulation results showed that LLEAP significantly outperforms EAP in terms of packet loss percentage by on average 93.4%.
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Wsn Routing Challenges

This section will talk about some of the design issues, challenges, and mechanisms that should be taken into consideration in WSN routing protocols design and generally in WSN design:

Energy-efficiency and network lifetime: usually sensor nodes work with batteries and use their limited capacity in sensing, computation and communication. While sensor node lifetime shows a strong dependence on battery lifetime and therefore the network lifetime shows a strong dependence on it, WSN should use energy-efficient techniques in its operation to reduce node’s energy consumption. But to increase network lifetime, a load-balance must exist among sensor nodes in addition to conserving the energy of every individual sensor node.

Computation capabilities: sensor nodes have limited computing power and therefore may not be able to run sophisticated network protocols. Therefore, new or light-weight and simple versions of traditional routing protocols are needed to fit in the WSN environment (Ilyas & Mahgoub, 2005).

Limited memory: sensor nodes usually have a small amount of memory; the size of a sensor node memory unit is ranging from hundreds of KB to hundreds of MB, so, the routing protocol shouldn’t require the storage of large amount of routing state information.

Communication range: inter-sensor communication exhibits short transmission ranges. Therefore, it is most likely that a route will generally consist of multiple wireless hops (Ilyas & Mahgoub, 2005).

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