Metaheuristic Design Patterns: New Perspectives for Larger-Scale Search Architectures

Metaheuristic Design Patterns: New Perspectives for Larger-Scale Search Architectures

Krzysztof Krawiec (Poznan University of Technology, Poland), Christopher Simons (University of the West of England, UK), Jerry Swan (University of York, UK) and John Woodward (University of Stirling, UK)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2990-3.ch001
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Abstract

Design patterns capture the essentials of recurring best practice in an abstract form. Their merits are well established in domains as diverse as architecture and software development. They offer significant benefits, not least a common conceptual vocabulary for designers, enabling greater communication of high-level concerns and increased software reuse. Inspired by the success of software design patterns, this chapter seeks to promote the merits of a pattern-based method to the development of metaheuristic search software components. To achieve this, a catalog of patterns is presented, organized into the families of structural, behavioral, methodological and component-based patterns. As an alternative to the increasing specialization associated with individual metaheuristic search components, the authors encourage computer scientists to embrace the ‘cross cutting' benefits of a pattern-based perspective to optimization algorithms. Some ways in which the patterns might form the basis of further larger-scale metaheuristic component design automation are also discussed.
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Background

In recent years, modern optimization algorithms have attracted a growing number of scientists, decision makers and practitioners. Indeed, powerful intelligent computational techniques such as metaheuristics have emerged for solving a vast number of complex real-world problems, exploiting both optimization theory and practice. Increasingly, metaheuristic optimization techniques offer generic, flexible, robust, and versatile frameworks for solving complex problems of optimization and search in real-world application areas such as economics and engineering. Many metaheuristics - evolutionary algorithms, particle swarms, ant colonies, to name a few - are population-based, which makes them particularly robust and applicable to a diverse range of application domains. Nevertheless, as is the case with many other algorithms, tailoring the design of larger-scale metaheuristic search techniques, components and frameworks can be complex and decidedly non-trivial and may raise cross-cutting concerns that are critical for system performance.

Previously, concerned with a diversity of buildings’ architecture, Alexander (1979) advocated a ‘timeless way of building’, drawn from thousands of years of traditional construction. Central to this approach is a ‘quality without a name’: good architectural quality is something that can be recognized, but difficult to describe in words, i.e. ‘you know it when you see it’. Alexander suggested that this quality of a design could be captured in terms of patterns such that each pattern describes a problem which occurs over and over again in our environment, and then describes the core of the solution in such a way that you can use this solution a million times over, without ever doing it the same way twice”. (Alexander et al., 1977, p. x).

Inspired by this notion of ‘heuristics at a broad, architectural scale’, Gamma, Helm, Johnson, & Vlissides (1995) applied design patterns to software design, an approach which revolutionized software development. Defined as “... descriptions of communicating objects and classes that are customized to solve a general design problem in a particular context, they proposed that design patterns in software should comprise four essential elements: a pattern name, a design problem, a design solution and the consequences, i.e. the results and tradeoffs of applying the pattern. According to Gamma et al., “These patterns solve specific design problems and make object-oriented designs more flexible, elegant, and ultimately reusable” (Gamma et al., 1995, p. 1). Design patterns prompted widespread change in the accepted practice of software design, leading to component descriptions at a more abstract architectural level. Subsequently, pattern-oriented software architectures have been proposed, which …present, discuss and contrast and relate the many known flavors and applications of the pattern concept: stand-alone patterns, pattern complements, pattern compounds, pattern stories, pattern sequences, and … pattern languages”. (Buschmann, Henney, & Schmidt, 2007, p. xxxii).

Applying design patterns offers many benefits. For example, reuse of successful designs and architectures is easier, since expressing proven techniques as design patterns makes them more accessible to developers of new systems (Gamma et al., 1995, p. 2). To address the complexity and associated non-trivial issues of designing and applying metaheuristics, this chapter advocates a pattern-based perspective on optimization architectures, with a particular focus on the construction of larger scale frameworks.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Optimization: The selection of the best element(s) (regarding some criterion(a)) from a set of available possibilities. In the computer science ‘black box’ model of computing, optimization refers to maximizing or minimizing input values for a given black box model of the world to achieve the best output values. More generally, optimization involves finding best available values to some objective function for a defined problem domain.

Unification: The act of bringing together disparate and heterogeneous software components into a single coherent approach, for example, by using software design patterns.

Standardization: A process of developing and implementing technical standards based on consensus among various stakeholders in the field. Standardization can greatly assist with compatibility and interoperability of otherwise disparate software components, where consistent solutions enable mutual gains for all stakeholders.

Pattern: According to Gamma, Helm, Johnson, and Vlissides (1995) AU142: The in-text citation "Gamma, Helm, Johnson, and Vlissides (1995)" is not in the reference list. Please correct the citation, add the reference to the list, or delete the citation. software design patterns are, “... descriptions of communicating objects and classes that are customized to solve a general design problem in a particular context” , and comprise four essential elements: a pattern name, a design problem, a design solution and the consequences, i.e. the results and tradeoffs of applying the pattern.

Architecture: A software architecture describes the high-level constructs of a software system, the relationships between them, and the disciplined process of creating such structures. Such structures enable and promote understanding of the software system. The notion of software architecture is a metaphor, inspired by the use of architecture in the built environment.

Metaheuristic: A higher-level technique exploiting heuristics to arrive at a sufficiently satisfactory solution to an optimization problem, especially with limited information or finite computational capacity. In contrast to iterative methods such as exhaustive search, metaheuristics do not guarantee that a globally optimum solution can be arrived at for a given class of problems.

Design: A cognitively-demanding process used in many fields for the planning or construction of an object, artifact or product in response to a practical need or requirement. Software design considers the functional, economic, aesthetic and performance qualities of the software-to-be, and can incorporate much repeated iteration while evaluating design solution candidates.

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