Occurrence of Pesticides and Their Removal From Aquatic Medium by Adsorption

Occurrence of Pesticides and Their Removal From Aquatic Medium by Adsorption

Irfan Rashid Sofi (Jiwaji University Gwalior, India), Rayees Ahmad Bhat (Jiwaji University Gwalior, India), Rabia Quadir (Jiwaji University Gwalior, India) and Javid Manzoor (Jiwaji University Gwalior, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-6111-8.ch015

Abstract

Large amounts of pesticides are used annually, and in some cases, a part of the pesticide enters the water bodies by surface runoff to form long-term residues. In the recent past, the adverse effects of pesticides on the environment and human health received serious attention by the public and the competent authorities. Various conventional methods are used to remove these pesticides from water, but those methods are either costly or typical in operation. Therefore, adsorption is considered as an ecofriendly method. The adsorbent derived from biomaterial is considered an encouraging adsorbent due to its cost-effective and high adsorption capacity. In this chapter, detailed information on different types of pesticides, their metabolites, environmental concerns, and present status on degradation methods using adsorbents will be reviewed. This chapter presents a comprehensive overview on the recent advancement in the utilization of different adsorbents for the removal of pesticides. Overall, this study assists researchers to move forward in exploring a simple and economically viable technique to produce adsorbents with outstanding physiochemical properties and excellent adsorption capacity, so that the pesticides can be removed from aquatic ecosystem.
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Introduction

Different types of pesticides have been extensively used by modern agriculture practices. The major pathways thought which pesticides reach into the environment are by application, disposal, runoff or a spill (Adachi et al., 2001). Environmental contamination due to the extreme use of pesticides has become a great opposing effect on human health and environment (Bakour et al., 2009). The unwarranted use of pesticides to control the crop destroying insects has gained momentum in last two to three decades. Due to their extensive usage, they easily contaminate different media i.e., air, soil and ground water. Their deposits may remain in soil which decreases the biodiversity in the soil and they may also pass into the ground waters by percolating through soil (Shukla et al., 2006). Many Organophosphate compounds are currently being used as pesticides are of concern due to their diligence, bioaccumulation as well as their toxicological effects on human health and the environment (Monirith et al., 2003). Pesticides are hazardous and toxic in nature and persist in the aquatic environment for many years. (Radan et al., 1999).

Pesticides are the substances that are used to kill, destroy or control pests which harm the agricultural produce. In the recent time the increasing population results in increasing demand of agricultural products and the quality of these products is controlled by using different kinds of pesticides and these pesticides may enter the human body through food chain. Pesticides used for agriculture purpose are released into the water bodies by surface runoff from agricultural landscape and also through municipal and industrial discharge which results in deterioration of water quality (Luo et al., 2008). The presence of pesticides in water bodies affect the aquatic biodiversity and other associated living organisms (Simazaki et al., 2015, Gou et al., 2016). It is important to understand the impact of pesticides on the aquatic animals and their ecosystem and also on humans which are sensitive to pesticides which may suffer from serious acute and chronic diseases ((Maund et al.,1997; Liess et al., 2003; Noyes et al.,2009).The exposure of human to those pesticides results in many disorders like infant mortality (Cremonse, 2014), Alzheimer’s disease (Hayden, 2010), Carcinogenicity (Vopham, 2015), Neurotoxicity (Kiefer, 2007), reproductive toxicity (Chevier, 2013), and metabolic toxicity (Evanglou, 2016).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Animal Repellents: These are products designed to keep certain animals away from objects, areas, people, plants, or other animals.

Pesticide Drift: When the pesticides diffuse to the off target is caused by the runoff or spray drift from plant or soil is called pesticide drift and can have potential effect on human health.

Bioaccumulation: This is the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism. Bioaccumulation occurs when an organism absorbs a substance at a rate faster than that at which the substance is lost by catabolism and excretion.

Activated Carbon: This is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions. Activated carbon is usually derived from charcoal and is sometimes utilized as biochar. Those derived from coal and coke is referred as activated coal and activated coke respectively.

Adsorption: This refers to the adhesion of atoms, ions, or molecules from a gas, liquid, or dissolved solid to a surface and creates a film of the adsorbate on the surface of the adsorbent. Adsorption is a surface-based process while absorption involves the whole volume of the material.

Disinfectants: The antimicrobial agent used to destroy the microorganisms on the nonliving surface are called disinfectants. Disinfection does not necessarily kill all microorganisms, especially resistant bacterial spores.

Insecticides: The substance used to kill insects is called insecticide. They include ovicides and larvicides used against insect eggs and larvae, respectively. Insecticides are used in agriculture, medicine, industry.

Ecotoxicology: Ecotoxicology is a multidisciplinary field, which integrates toxicology and ecology and it involves the study of effect of toxic chemicals at the population, community, ecosystem, and biosphere levels.

Pests: A pes t is a plant or animal detrimental to humans or human concerns including crops, livestock, and forestry. The term is also used of organisms that cause a nuisance, such as in the home. In its broadest sense, a pest is a competitor of humanity.

Agricultural Chemistry: The study of both chemistry and biochemistry which are important in agricultural production, the processing of raw products into foods and beverages, and in environmental monitoring and remediation. These studies emphasize the relationships between plants, animals, and bacteria and their environment.

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