Optical Satellite Sensors for Tracking MH370 Debris

Optical Satellite Sensors for Tracking MH370 Debris

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1920-2.ch007

Abstract

This chapter reviews the optical satellite data around the tracking of MH370 debris. To this end, limited optical sensors are involved in Gafen-1, Worldview-2, Thaichote, and Pleiades-1A satellite data. Moreover, Google Earth data is also implemented to define debris that likely belongs to MH370. In doing so, automatic target detection based on its spectral signature is implemented to recognize any segment of MH370 debris. Consequently, most of the debris that has shown on satellite images does not belong to MH370. Needless to say, bright spots perhaps belong to the scattering of garbage floating in ocean waters or clouds.
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Theoretical Of Target Detection In Optical Sensors

According to Gorelick et al., (2017), a spectral signature is a keystone for object detection in optical remote sensing images. In this respect, the spectral imaging is categorized into multispectral, hyperspectral, and ultraspectral. More willingly than UV, hyperspectral devices exploit reflections from hundreds of bands in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum. However, cameras (and eyeballs) identify targets by their shape or by contrasts of light and dark, hyperspectral sensors can assemble reflections at various IR wavelengths and automatically determine the material that a target is made of.

MH370 debris detection and, optimistically, classification relies on consistent, exhaustive information about the distinctive spectral features of a debris, which vary from the surrounding environment(Mélin, and Vantrepotte, (2015). The more imaging bands available to examine the image scene, the higher the chances are of detecting and identifying anomalous MH370 debris in a natural environment (Morel, 1988;Babin et al, 2003; Emberton et al., 2016)

MH370 debris floating on the water surface restrain surface, leaving light in a number of behaviours, (i) downwelling light reflects (R) contrarily off debris (RMH370 debris) than off ocean surface (ROcean surface), (ii) transmittance of downwelling light through debris (RMH370 debris), is different from transmittance through the air-water interface (ROt), changing the underwater light (Rws), and henceforth the backscattered upwelling light (Rds), and (iii) subsurface upwelling light diffuses through debris differently than through the water-air interface (Figure 1). In the SWIR, pure water has absorption peaks near 1.45 μm, 1.94 μm and 2.95 μm. A thin film of water on the debris, therefore, can significantly reduce leaving the light of the debris (Babin et al, 2003 and Emberton et al., 2016).

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