Optimizing the Size of Drug-Loaded Nanoparticles Using Design of Experiments: Solid Lipid Nanoparticles

Optimizing the Size of Drug-Loaded Nanoparticles Using Design of Experiments: Solid Lipid Nanoparticles

Paola Cervantes-Covarrubias (Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Mexico), Ayla Vea-Barragan (Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Mexico), Aracely Serrano-Medina (Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Mexico), Eugenia Gabriela Carrillo-Cedillo (Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Mexico) and José Manuel Cornejo-Bravo (Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Mexico)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1518-1.ch006

Abstract

Nanoparticles formed from lipids are currently applied successfully to deliver drugs. The particle size of the nanoparticle system is an essential characteristic to enhance the entrance of the drugs inside tissues and cells. Using design of experiment is appealing to find the specific conditions to optimize particle size of drug-loaded nanoparticles. Authors of this chapter applied a fractional factorial design of half fraction 24-1 with levels between continue factors, finding statistically significant differences for two factors such as concentrations of drugs and type of solvent where the organic phase is dissolved. This design shows the optimization of a formulation of capsaicin in solid lipid nanoparticles. The chapter also includes information on methods to prepare solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), the variables involved, and a selection of studies about optimization of SLN formulations.
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Background

Lipid-based carriers are particularly suited for topical application (Mahant, Rao, & Nanda, 2018). Liposomes are spherical vesicles composed of one or more phospholipid bilayers, representing the first generation of the novel lipid colloidal carriers after submicron emulsion-bases products were developed in 1960s (Joshi & Müller, 2009; Mehnert & Mäder, 2012). Liposomes offered encapsulation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs but have many disadvantages, including short shelf life, poor stability, low encapsulation efficacy, and cell interactions (Czajkowska-Kośnik, Szekalska, & Winnicka, 2019).

In 1990s Müeller started exploring the potential of nanoparticles-based on solid lipids. This drug delivery system was developed as an alternative system for poorly water-soluble drugs. The lipid phase of an SLN is solid at body and room RT. These lipid carriers minimize problems connected with traditional drug formulations and have some advantages, such as ease of preparation, good biocompatibility, lower cytotoxicity, avoidance of organic solvents, and wide possibilities of applications (Czajkowska-Kośnik et al., 2019; Müller, Mder, & Gohla, 2000).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Topical: Site on the skin to applicate a drug formulation as a enter drug point on the body.

Permeation: The activity of the molecule to cross de stratum cornea and the epidermis.

Diffusion: A movement of a solvent from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.

Lipid: A class of organic compounds as fatty acid or their derivates, soluble in organic solvents.

Drug Delivery: Is the process of the system to achieve a drug on the target site.

Particle Size: The hydrodynamic diameter of a solid particle.

Optimization: Is a process to get target particle size, finding best concentrations of reagents with a percent of confidence.

Surfactant: Is a class of water-soluble polymer used to make stable emulsions oil/water.

Solid Lipid Nanoparticles: Particles with nanometric size elaborated with lipid and stabilized with surfactant.

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