DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-0145-0.ch004
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In Chapter 3, the authors consider pedagogy to andragogy. Readers are treated to a brief overview of the pedagogical history and find out when the change from pedagogy to andragogy occurred. Readers will also realize the definition of pedagogy and that pedagogical approaches can be placed on a spectrum from teacher-centered or teacher-directed to learner-centered or learner-directed. The term engagement and, more specifically, student engagement are presented in the chapter. Banking theory will be explored as well as false generosity, active learning, faculty development, and the community of inquiry framework.
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Whether you’re a first-time instructor, administrator, or a veteran in higher education, the complexity regarding “best practice” can even make a veteran run for the exit. The literature uses multiple terms to refer to best practice. These terms include innovative practice and high impact practice or more commonly referred to as HIP. So, what is HIP? Let’s consider earlier literature to help answer this question.

Table 1.
From Pedagogy to Andragogy, to now: When did the change happen?
“Since formal education in the United States has focused largely on those between ages 6 and 21, most research before the mid-1960s centered on people in these age groups. Many teachers of adults begin to question the validity of pedagogical assumptions in the early 1960s.” (Holmes & Abington-Cooper, 2000, p. 50)

To understand post-traditional leaners’ needs, let’s turn our eyes to pedagogy, and how the learner has evolved so drastically. “Pedagogy evolved in the monastic schools of Europe between the 7th and 12th centuries. The term is derived from the Greek words paid, meaning ‘child’ and agogus meaning ‘leader of” (p. Holmes & Abington-Cooper, 2000, p. 51). In the 1920s pedagogical concerns were expressed heavily in research communities. While the majority of research focused on pedagogy, there were some elements of andragogy during this time. Surprisingly to many, the ideas of adult learning and the needs of post-traditional learners have been around since the early 20th century. While Dewey is credited with much of the American ideals on adult learning, Eduard Lindeman’s 1926 The Meaning of Adult Education provides broad context that is pertinent to this discussion of post-traditional learners. As far back as the early 20th century, a struggle existed between the attempts of nations to standardize learning and still serve the needs of individual learners. Lindeman (1926) writes about efforts to allow free access to education and to standardize education, saying:

We have gone even further and have made certain levels of education compulsory. But the result has been disappointing; we have succeeded merely in formalizing, mechanizing, educational processes. The spirit and meaning of education cannot be enhanced by addition, by the easy method of giving the same dose to more individuals. (p. 4)

Does this sound familiar? Teaching using a pre-designed curriculum or even scripted curriculums, given to all students, regardless of aptitude? The idea of mechanizing is one of the first principles we can glean from traditional literature and pedagogy. For our highlighters: When we seek to design generic programs, or curriculums that don’t consider our students diverse needs, we lose our students in the generic motions of the class. If you teach classes and wonder why your students stare at you, barely speak, and are passive, it’s not the content; it’s you.

For our administrator, smirking, because you don’t teach classes and think you’ve gotten a free pass, this also applies to you. Consider your professional development opportunities, events, guest lectures, committee meetings (We all know how much we love these!), all of these are venues for learning. We’re talking about post-traditional learners in this book, but it’s important to remember that your professional staff are also lifelong learners, and you directly influence whether they gain knowledge or are inhibited by the method you use to inform them.

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