People Flow Monitoring

People Flow Monitoring

Jussi Kuutti (Aalto University, Finland), Matti Linnavuo (Aalto University, Finland) and Raimo E. Sepponen (Aalto University, Finland)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-5888-2.ch681
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General about People Flow Monitoring

People flow rate represents the number of people passing through a certain passage per unit time. People flow sensor—also called a pedestrian or visitor counter—is a device capable of measuring people flow rate and often also the direction of passing people. The sensor is triggered by physical signals caused by the pedestrians like visual appearance, heat emission, reflections of the body surface, or pressure against the path (Bauer, Brandle, Seer, Ray, & Kitazawa, 2009).

Knowledge of the people flow sensor performance is important as the more reliable data a sensor provides, the better are the results of applications utilizing it (Cessford et al., 2002). Manual counting by human observers is tedious, expensive, and typically used only for a short period of time, making the results quite unreliable in general (Heikkilä & Silvén, 2004). Thus it is usually used only to check the accuracy of sensor-based counting. Sensor technologies have been widely tested for pedestrian and bicycle traffic counting and safety related presence detection (Bu, Greene-Roesel, Diogenes, & Ragland, 2007; Chan & Bu, 2005; Dharmaraju, Noyce, & Lehman, 2001; Diogenes, Greene-Roesel, Arnold, & Ragland, 2007; SRF Consulting Group, 2003). For presence detection purposes, the detection reliability of people in a certain area is often more important than counting every individual in the possible group or crowd. Previous people flow sensor comparisons have been mostly accomplished in the context of outdoor applications.

Key Terms in this Chapter

People Flow Rate: A physical quantity representing the number of people passing through a certain passage per unit time.

Calibration Factor: A value which the sensor reading has to be multiplied with to get the corresponding ground-truth reference or the correct reading.

Demand Controlled Ventilation (DCV): A system that responds to changes in the generation rate of indoor pollution by adjusting the ventilation rate. The control can be based on measurement of ambient conditions (e.g. CO2 concentration, temperature, humidity) or counting the number of people occupying the space.

Counting Error Rate: The proportion of the difference of people flow sensor reading and the corresponding ground-truth reference to the ground-truth reference. Usually given in percentage.

People Flow Sensor: A device used to measure the number and often also the direction of people passing through a certain passage per unit time.

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